153. The emerging global economy continues to be characterised by rapid growth in flows of trade, finance, information and technology, which has led to increased interdependence among countries. Countries interact with the global economy from vastly different levels of development and, accordingly, the impact of globalisation and liberalisation is highly uneven. While the current trend has lead to increasing economic opportunity for some developing economies, it is evident that a large number of member countries of the Non-Aligned Movement, particularly in Africa, continue to be marginalised and thus unable to fully share the benefits of these processes. We are deeply concerned that most developing countries continue to face problems of access to markets, capital and technology and many grapple with the structural transformation necessary for practical and meaningful integration into the world economy. Since the ability to exploit new opportunities depends on the economic, technological trade, industrial and institutional capacities to enter the global markets, globalisation deepens the technological, financial and productive gap between the developed and developing countries. Hence, we strongly believe that the central focus of international development efforts should be in the creation of an enabling international environment where developing countries will be able to acquire the requisite capacities to successfully compete and fully benefit from globalisation.
154. We welcome the adoption of UNGA resolution 54/231 on Globalisation and Interdependence which reaffirms the central role that the United Nations has to play in promoting international co-operation for development in the context of globalisation and interdependence, and strongly stress the need for a better and more effective collaboration between the UN, the Bretton Woods Institutions and the World Trade Organisation, to promote co-ordination on economic, financial, technological trade and development issues at the global level to help developing countries benefit from this economic atmosphere. We emphasise that the international trade and financial institutions must take full account of the decisions by the UN and to ensure that their policies do not run counter to developmental objectives of NAM and other developing countries.
155. We reaffirm the need to establish an open, rule-based, accountable, predictable, just, equitable, comprehensive, development oriented and non-discriminatory global system of economic relations, especially at a time when developing countries are actively engaged in the process of liberalisation and integration into the global economy. We further stress that the process of globalisation and any multilateral negotiations on agriculture must take fully into account concerns and special needs, including those related to food security and rural employment, of developing countries, which are large predominantly agrarian economies.
156. We are deeply concerned over the fact that developing countries are shouldering a disproportionate share of the adjustment burden, taking into consideration the rapid changes and transformations of the world economy. We are equally concerned that the gap between rich and poor countries continues to widen. There is also a need for equity in international economic relations to reverse the growing disparities between rich and poor, both among and within countries through inter alia, the eradication of poverty, expansion of productive employment and enhancement of social integration.
157. Noting the interdependence of nations and the varying levels of human development world-wide, we stress the need for a New Global Human Order aimed at reversing the growing disparities between rich and poor, both among and within countries through the alleviation of poverty, the expansion of productive employment and the promotion of social integration.
158. The empirical record shows, among others, that the income gap between developed and developing countries has widened. Even those countries, which seem to have well to globalisation were most seriously affected by the Asian financial crises. It is clear that there is no automatic process by which income levels of developing countries will converge to those of developed nations. The challenge before the international community is to ensure that globalisation should take into account the development dimension.
159. We note that growth in some developing countries is contributing significantly to the locomotive forces of world economic growth and thus the process of global integration of developing countries is paying dividends to the industrialised countries as well. However, we regret that the voice of developing countries in decision-making still does not realistically reflect their emergence as important actors in the world economy. We therefore urge developed countries to give this cumulative contribution and role meaningful and commensurate recognition. The participation of developing countries in global economic decision-making, particularly in the international financial institutions, as well as in trade and other economic areas, should thus be enhanced. We reaffirm the need for such democratisation and transparency in international economic and financial decision-making in all fora and at all levels, with the full participation of developing countries so as to ensure that their development interests would be finally taken into account. Beginning of a new century represents an opportunity to establish a process which will focus on reforming international decision-making and mechanisms on monetary, financial and trade issues, in order to make them more responsive to the needs of developing countries. NAM will look forward to that process and proposals to that end should be developed and studied. In this regard, we underline the need for the development of proposals by Members of the Movement.
160. We note the global trends in mergers and acquisitions of transnational companies, and are concerned they could lead to a situation of oligopolies, which may also end up as monopolies, with adverse implications for global producers and consumers, including its adverse impact on developing countries, local industries and companies.
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161. The reactivation and strengthening of international co-operation for development is necessary in order to facilitate an increased participation by developing countries in the world economy on terms, which are beneficial to them and promote their developmental efforts. In this context, we call for a renewed emphasis on technical assistance in the development co-operation programmes of the UN system, including specialised international agencies. There is also a need for more effective and enhanced participation in the world economy by developing countries, notably in the international and economic decisions and rule-making. In this regard, the accession of developing countries applying for membership to the WTO should be facilitated without linking it to any political and/or economic considerations with a view to ensuring WTO s universality as well as its non-discriminatory character. We reaffirm the need for developing countries to have result-oriented consultations among themselves to promote more effective participation in WTO.
162. We emphasise that the achievement of the objectives of poverty eradication, economic and social progress, sustained economic growth and sustainable development depends on a more favourable and dynamic international economic environment and revitalised international development co-operation supportive of developing countries' efforts. While subscribing to the values of environmental protection, labour standards, intellectual property protection, sound macro-economic management and promotion and protection of all human rights, we totally reject all attempts to use these issues as conditionalities and pretexts for restricting market access or aid and technology flows to developing countries or linking them to the multilateral trade negotiations.
163. We express concern at the continuing decline in the availability of core resources to UN funds and programmes, especially UNDP and UNFPA, and underline that in the area of development assistance provision of new and additional financial resources provided by developed countries taking into account the needs and priorities of the developing countries, without any conditionality and fully respecting the fundamental characteristics of the UN operational activities, is an imperative.
164. We are concerned over the evident lack of political will on the part of developed countries to revitalise international co-operation for development. We are convinced that ODA continues to constitute an important source of financial flows for many developing countries, particularly LDCs. In this context, we are deeply concerned over the continued decline of the official development assistance and call on the developed countries to ensure the fulfilment of their commitment to meet the United Nations target of 0.7% of their GNP as official development assistance for all the developing countries latest by the end of the first decade of the twenty first century, as well as to meet the UN target of 0.15% of their GNP to LDCs as soon as possible.
165. We also emphasise the importance of dialogue on strengthening international co-operation for development through partnership based on the mutuality of interests and benefits, common but differentiated responsibilities and genuine interdependence. We strongly believe that the dialogue should serve as a useful forum to discuss emerging global issues to strengthen international co-operation for development through genuine partnership. We underscore the need for active participation of the members of the Movement in the process leading to the next dialogue to be held in the year 2001 which theme will be "Responding to the challenges of globalisation: facilitating the integration of developing countries into the world economy in the twenty-first century" according with GA resolution 54/213.
166. We recognise the right of all States to determine freely their own political, economic and social system. We condemn the continued application by certain countries of extra-territorial measures and legislation, and their imposition of unilateral coercive economic measures against certain developing countries, and reaffirm that no state may use or encourage the use of economic, political or any other type of measures to coerce another state, including thorough non-extension of MFN status. We call on all states not to recognise the unilateral, extra-territorial laws enacted by certain countries which impose sanctions on companies and individuals belonging to other countries, since these measures and legislation threaten the sovereignty of states, adversely affect their social and economic development, marginalize developing countries from the process of globalisation, and are contrary to international law, the principles and purposes of UN Charter, the norms and principles governing peaceful relations among states, and agreed principles of the multilateral trading system.
167. We underline the need for strong political commitment by the international community for the successful implementation of the Agenda for Development. There is also a need to mobilise sufficient resources for its implementation so that it can contribute effectively to promote sustained economic growth in the developing countries and to remove existing imbalances in the world economy. We urge the UNGA to undertake through appropriate mechanisms the follow-up and assessment of the implementation of the Agenda for Development.
168. We are concerned over the lack of implementation of the outcomes of the major United Nations conferences and summits, due mainly to the failure of the developed countries to fulfil their commitments for new and additional resources, the transfer of knowledge and technology to developing countries as well as enhanced access to the markets of the developed countries. We call upon countries implement their commitments undertaken and to make tangible progress towards the achievement of the targets, goals and objectives set by the UN conferences and summits.
169. The contribution of transnational corporations TNC- to the sustained economic growth and sustainable development is determined by their global strategies characterised by the search of increased competitiveness and ever-higher profits. Such a situation is not necessarily consistent with job creation and the realisation of development objectives in many developing countries. Hence, we invite the relevant international institutions to address this dilemma with a view to reaching the right balance between both objectives. In this context, we request UNCTAD and ILO, with in their respective mandates, to study the merger trend among the TNCs and its impact on unemployment as well as its competitiveness impact on small and medium enterprises (SMEs) in developing countries. We emphasise the need for the integration of the development objectives of the host countries in the business strategies of TNCs.
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170. We welcome the adoption of the UNCTAD Plan of Action during its Tenth session held in Bangkok, Thailand on 12-19 February 2000. In this regard, we reiterate the important role that UNCTAD has to play in helping developing countries to integrate into the world economy through analysis, consensus building and technical co-operation in areas of special interest such as investment, enterprise development and technology, trade in goods and services, in particular commodities, and services infrastructure for development and trade efficiency.
171. We urge UNCTAD to work towards the effective implementation of the Plan of Action and call upon UNCTAD and other international organisations to co-operate and work closely to achieve all the objectives contained in the Plan of Action.
172. The failure of the Third Ministerial Conference of the WTO held in Seattle, USA, on 30 November to 3 December 1999 is a clear signal that transparency in negotiations and the effective participation, particularly of developing countries, is an essential pre-requisite for any successful outcome. It is also a clear signal that much more work is needed to uphold and strengthen an open, rule-based, equitable, secure, non-discriminatory, transparent and predictable multilateral trade system, as also to review and assess the implementation of existing agreements. In this regard, we believe that future negotiations on international trade should:
173. We emphasise that the imbalance and asymmetries that have been apparent in the course of implementation of the WTO Agreements be urgently addressed. These include the lack of full and faithful implementation of existing obligations by developed countries in the area of textiles and agriculture, lack of market access for products of special interest to developing countries, non-realisation of the provisions for special and differential treatment, and the curtailment of developing countries' ability to pursue policy instruments that promote development. Further negotiations must ensure that these implementation issues are addressed and that the negotiations result in equitable benefits for all countries. There should also be an extension in the implementation periods of certain Agreements where the developing countries face particular problems, especially the TRIPS and the TRIMS Agreements.
174. We are seriously concerned over the disturbing tendencies of developed countries to link further liberalisation in already agreed areas with concessions from developing countries to liberalise areas of interest to them. We are also concerned that trading opportunities for developing countries were neutralised by the use of protectionist measures by the developed countries, such as misuse of antidumping and other provisions including those taken unilaterally and in the guise of technical standards, environmental, social and environmental or human rights related concerns. We unequivocally reaffirm that non-trade issues, such as social and environmental issues, should not be introduced in the agenda of the WTO.
175. We reiterate that low wages and environmental standards in developing countries are not responsible for the loss of jobs in developed countries, which should address their unemployment through the implementation of appropriate macro-economic and structural policies.
176. We reaffirm that the ILO is the only international body competent to set and deal with labour standards. We also reiterate that there is no linkage between trade and labour standards and reject all attempts to establish such a linkage as well as the use of labour standards as a pretext for unilateral action in the field of trade. While we remain committed to promoting all relevant labour standards, we firmly reject its use for political or protectionist purposes.
177. Recognising that trade, investment and technology continue to be the key elements for economic development, we also call for further liberalisation and increased access for the products and services where developing countries have a comparative advantage including movement of natural persons, and access to transfer of technology on preferential and concessional terms. In this regard, we welcome the adoption of GA resolution 54/198 on Trade and Development, which emphasises all these important issues. We call for the urgent operationalisation and full implementation of the provisions of special and differential treatment in favour of developing countries and their further strengthening. We invite UNCTAD to continue its substantive work in this area and elaborate on issues of importance to developing countries.
178. We welcome the conclusions of negotiations in February 2000 of a New Partnership Agreement between ACP and EU and we have noted that both parties have submitted a request for a WTO waiver for a period of 8 years to enable the EU to continue to provide trade preferences to the ACP. We reaffirm our support to the WTO waiver in order to allow the continuation of preferential trade arrangements during the 8 years preparatory period.
179. In the spirit of fostering North-South relations we underline the necessity for developed countries to eliminate laws and regulations with adverse extra-territorial effects and other forms of unilateral economic coercive measures, inconsistent with the principles of international laws, UN Charter and the principles of the multilateral trading systems.
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180. We welcome the adoption of UNGA resolution 54/196 that decided to convene in 2001 a high level intergovernmental event on financing for development. The intergovernmental event should address the international and systemic issues regarding financing for development in a holistic manner. We believe that this event will offer a good opportunity for developing countries to discuss with the different financial institutions and developed countries what our development needs really are and how do we want them to help us solve them. We recognise the need to hold the Conference at the highest level in order to ensure greater political commitment to financing of development. We also recognise the importance of an early decision on the venue and timing of the meeting in ensuring high-level participation and in this regard underline the need for further efforts to facilitate the decision. We appreciate the decision of the World Bank to actively participate in the preparatory process and encourage the International Monetary Fund and the World Trade Organisation to do the same. We welcome the decision of all relevant stakeholders, including the private sector to actively participate in the preparatory process.
181. In the wake of recent financial and economic crises adversely affecting a number of developing countries, we again underline the need for specific regulatory framework for the financial and exchange markets against international speculative activities. Whilst reiterating the call for an increase in FDI into developing countries, it is essential to ensure the transparency of the capital flows of private sectors with a view to strengthening the early warning system and improving crisis management to mitigate the possible adverse impact of such financial crises in the future. The international financial system should create and enhance mechanisms, including surveillance mechanisms, technical assistance and adequate information facilities, so as to prevent such crises and neutralise their adverse impact and recommend ways to discourage speculative capital flows. We call upon the developed countries to increase their financial contribution to the international financial institutions and to approve the increase in SDRs in the IMF, in order to improve the international liquidity and to enhance their ability to respond to crisis. The increasing level of private and non-transparent international financial flows calls for the reform of the international financial architecture, which will lead to a truly democratic and fair international financial system that will ensure the effective and full participation of the developing countries in the management of the international economy.
182. We reiterate the need for a stable, adequately financed international financial system that allows our economies to respond adequately to the challenges of development. In this regard, it is imperative to improve the capabilities of early warning, prevention and response of the international financial system to deal with financial crisis in a timely manner. The experience from the Asian financial crisis has also shown that excessive volatility in short-term capital flows and speculation in currency are among factors contributing to the instability of international finance. Thus, there is a need to consider the establishment of appropriate regulatory frameworks for short-term capital flows in order to prevent abuse of financial instruments and institutions such as hedge funds and high leverage institutions. There is also a need to establish coherent policies at national and international level to minimise the negative impacts of excessive volatility of short-term capital flows.
183. We urge developed countries to undertake necessary structural adjustments in their economies and refrain from protectionist tendencies against competitive imports from developing countries especially in the textile, clothing and agricultural sectors and against FDI outflows to them, in the interest of new growth opportunities. In addition, we call for the increased technical assistance from developed countries to developing countries, especially for those countries that have adversely been affected by the financial and economic crisis.
184. We call upon the Bretton Woods Institutions not to link their credit facilities with non-economic issues particularly security matters. We emphasise that these institutions should resist efforts by certain countries to use them to promote their narrow interests. These institutions should extend their maximum help to developing countries facing serious liquidity problems.
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185. We welcome the G-8 Cologne Debt Initiative on HIPC as a movement in the right direction. While recognising the advancements made on measures towards the relief of external debt of developing countries, we underscore the need to strengthen these measures. We urge the IMF to explore new sources or mechanisms for funding debt relief measures. Developed countries must provide the necessary financial contributions for debt relief, including the necessary resources to finance the Enhanced Structural Adjustment Facility. We also urge creditor countries to facilitate the implementation of the HIPC for debt reduction, by broadening the number of eligible countries and making the established conditions more flexible. In this context, there is also a need to take decisive steps aimed at substantially reducing official bilateral debts through their cancellation or writing off through provision of additional resources by the developed countries, without impacting on the credit-worthiness of the lending institutions. We call for the immediate elimination of all political measures prohibiting access of some developing countries to the resources of the international financial institutions by certain developed countries.
186. We welcome the initiative by the Organisation of African Unity (OAU) taken at its IV Extraordinary Session of the Assembly of Heads of State or Government (held in Sirte, Libya) in the Sirte Declaration of September 9, 1999, through its Contact Group on Africas External Debt, to fully address the issue of Africas external indebtedness, with a view to securing its total cancellation as a matter of urgency. In this regard, we urge the Group of 8 Industrialised Countries, at their next summit in Okinawa, Japan, to ensure a lasting solution to Africas indebtedness by responding positively to this initiative.
187. We also emphasise the need for a durable solution of the indebtedness of developing countries including middle-income countries, which is seriously crippling their sustained economic growth and sustainable development. While a number of measures and policies in the past including rescheduling have been helpful in alleviating the immediate situation, they have not achieved a durable solution. We particularly recognise the economic and social costs being incurred by the middle-income developing countries because of their external debt servicing obligations. Thus, in any such discussion on debt of developing countries including middle-income countries, the "once and for all" debt reduction policy arrangements should be seriously considered so as to speed up the release of financial resources for development particularly for the countries, which are honouring their debt repayment commitments in the face of acute economic difficulties. The solutions would also require new initiatives to facilitate their development. We urge the intensification of measures on the write-off of debt to promote development investments in accordance with the priorities and needs of developing countries. We also recognise the tremendous difficulties and problems faced by low income countries which have serviced their debt obligations at high costs to themselves and urge the international community to take the situation of low income countries into account in any comprehensive package of measures to resolve the external debt problems of developing countries.
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188. We reiterate our full support to UNEP and call for its strengthening as a unique international organisation entrusted with the mandate to make analysis of the environmental problems in order to fulfil the goal of renewing international commitments for the implementation of Agenda 21 and other agreements at the Earth Summit and subsequent meetings and promote technical co-operation.
189. We stress the need for UNEP and UNCHS to increase their co-operation and co-ordination among their activities, within the framework of their respective mandates and separate programmatic and organisational identities, as well as their separate Executive Directors. We also stress that capacity-building and technical assistance must remain important components of the work programmes of both UNEP and UNCHS.
190. We recognise the ongoing efforts of developing countries for the realisation of the goals of sustainable development. At the same time, we continue to be deeply concerned about the lack of fulfilment of the international commitments undertaken by the developed countries at the Rio Earth Summit. We call for urgent fulfilment of commitments for the provision of financial resources, technical assistance and transfer of environmentally sound technology, including time bound commitments, as appropriate, to developing countries. In this context, we are disappointed at the non-fulfilment of commitments, as agreed at the Special Session of the General Assembly in 1997.
191. We call on the UN General Assembly for the early establishment of an open-ended, intergovernmental preparatory process for Rio+10 that ensures the effective participation of all developing countries, particularly Members of NAM, and in this context acknowledge South African offer to host the Conference.
192. We emphasise the central role that the Commission on Sustainable Development plays in reviewing the implementation of Agenda 21 and in promoting sustainable development. In this regard, we call on to all NAM members for an active participation in the high-level policy debate of the CSD meetings, particularly, during the next session that will discuss issues of primarily importance for developing countries such as agriculture and land management, economic growth, trade and investment. We also look forward to the initial discussions for the review of Rio + 10 which will take place during the CSD-8.
193. In this context, we emphasise that the review process should be action oriented and should reactivate the global community's support for sustainable development and sustained economic growth. There should be a balance in addressing the sectoral and cross-sectoral issues of Agenda 21. The review process should provide appropriate solutions to the obstacles and problems being faced by developing countries in the implementation of Agenda 21.
194. We reiterate our concern at the increasing number and scale of natural disasters, which have resulted in massive losses of live and long-term negative social, economic and environmental consequences for vulnerable societies world-wide, in particular in developing countries. In this regard, we express our full support for UNGA resolution 54/219 and call upon States and relevant intergovernmental bodies in order to translate the Yokohama Strategy for a safer world into concrete disaster reduction programmes and activities.
195. We welcome the adoption of UNGA resolution 54/220, on the international co-operation to reduce the impact of El Ni˝o Phenomenon, and call upon the international community to contribute to its full implementation.
196. We reaffirm that economic and social development constitutes a priority and a fundamental right of countries. Sustainable development, therefore, must be considered within the wider context of sustained economic growth. States have the sovereign right to exploit resources in accordance with their own environmental and development policies.
197. We emphasise further the principle of the permanent sovereign of peoples under foreign occupation over their natural resources.
198. We stress that the new and additional financial resources to developing countries have not been provided, the transfer of environmentally sound technologies of favourable, concessional and preferential terms has not been realised, and that the developed countries have not assumed and performed practical commitment to the principle of common but differentiated responsibilities.
199. We once again call for the democratisation of the GEF, for transparency in its decision-making processes and for co-ordination between the implementing agencies of the GEF to be strengthened. We commit ourselves to continue reinforcing the developing countries joint participation in the GEF to safeguard their common interests, both in the orientation of its policies as well as in the financial allocation of resources.
200. We welcome the adoption of the Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety by the Conference of Parties to the Convention on Biological Diversity. We invite all Governments to considering taking the necessary steps to make possible the entry into force of this important international instrument as soon as possible, and help developing countries through capacity-building and other co-operation mechanisms in the relevant areas of the Protocol.
201. We underline that, in accordance with the Convention on Biological Diversity, technology transfer and the efforts aimed at establishing an international system for the protection of intellectual property rights, including those related to goods and processes, should guarantee an equitable distribution of benefits arising from the use of genetic resources. We will work to ensure that proprietary patents are developed only after obtaining the prior informed consent of the developing countries concerned, after reaching agreement on benefit sharing, to ensure a flow back on benefits from patentees to original developers. We also underscore that the rules and habits of local communities must be respected and incorporated into the intellectual property rights' norms.
202. We emphasise the importance of biodiversity as strategic wealth of the developing countries, on account of both at present and potential value and agree that its adequate management and conservation are essential for sustainable development, especially in the most important areas of national economies such as forests' utilisation, agriculture, fishing, wildlife management, health, industry and tourism.
203. We recall the legally binding commitments for the parties to the Framework Convention on Climate Change to reduce their emission of Greenhouse Gases as contained in Annex B of the Kyoto Protocol. We call on the developed countries to undertake necessary and immediate steps to implement these commitments particularly through domestic action. Emission trading for implementation of such commitments can only commence after issues relating to the principles and modalities of such trading, including initial allocations of emission entitlement on an equitable basis to all countries, has been agreed upon by the Parties to the Convention.
204. We encourage the VI COP of the UNFCCC to adopt the rules and modalities for the implementation of the clean development mechanism. We categorically reject all attempts by some developed countries to link their ratification of the Kyoto Protocol with the question of participation by developing countries in the reduction of GHG emissions, taking into account that the creation of a clean development mechanism implies the possibility for industrialised countries to reduce significantly the cost of emissions reductions within their own boundaries. We also call for immediate measures to provide the developing countries with necessary financial resources and clean technology to enable them to meet their commitments under the Framework Convention on Climate Change, including inter alia, inventorisation of national emissions and dissemination of knowledge of climate change.
205. We urge developed countries to implement effective measures, to cope with their commitments in terms of the reduction of emission of greenhouse gases in their own territories and highlight the need to avoid so called flexibility mechanisms enabling those countries to elude the fulfilment of their commitments.
206. We acknowledge that the depletion of the ozone layer poses a serious threat to the whole world. We urge Parties to the Montreal Protocol to comply with its requirements and to phase out the production and consumption of regulated ozone depleting substances (ODS' s) in accordance with the phase out schedules agreed to by countries in terms of the Protocol. We also urge Parties to the Protocol to provide technical and financial assistance to affected producers in developing countries in compliance with the requirements of the Protocol.
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207. We reaffirm that the right to food is a fundamental human right and its promotion constitutes a moral imperative for the international community. We emphatically reject the use of food as an instrument of economic or political pressure.
208. We express our concern over the large number of people, in particular children who suffer from hunger and malnutrition. We emphasise the need to take urgent action to meet the commitments for achieving food security for present and future generations, taking full account of the priorities and objectives set out in the World Food Summit of 1996.
209. We note that in spite of the advance made by the Uruguay Round, the Accords on Agriculture will lead only to partial trade liberalisation, and serious distortions will persist in the agricultural commodity markets even after their full implementation. We express our deep concern about the negative effects of this Accord on the developing countries, particularly the LDC s and the net food importing countries. We strongly believe that these concerns should be given due priority in the course of the ongoing agriculture negotiations within the WTO. Accordingly, we consider necessary to undertake studies on the impact of the new multilateral trading system on food supply and its possible consequences on food security, particularly in developing countries. We further call for incorporating the agriculture sector within normal WTO rules, addressing the particular problems of predominantly agrarian economies, small islands developing economies and net food importing developing countries.
210. We underline that progress of developing countries is dependent both on access to technology and on their endogenous capacity to develop it. We express grave concern over measures aimed at blocking or impeding, for political or other ends, particularly through coercive economic measures, the transfer of technology to developing countries. The controls imposed by highly industrialised countries on the export of dual use technology and other types of sensitive technology should not be used to prevent the access of developing countries to technology for peaceful, developmental purposes. We stress that endogenous capacity building in Science and Technology in developing countries should remain a priority issue in the UN Agenda.
211. We emphasise the need for formulating proposals to ensure that the Trade Related Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS) Agreements promote the development of developing countries. In this context, we underline the need for exploring the possibility for the formulation of a Code of Conduct, which is applicable to all countries for the access to and transfer of technologies on concessional and preferential terms from developed countries to developing countries.
212. We also underscore the urgent necessity for the international community to address the terms of access on which technology is made available to developing countries. We emphasise the need for urgent operationalisation of commitments to transfer technology to developing countries on concessional and affordable terms. We also call for transfer of environmentally sound technologies on affordable terms where such technologies and production methods have been mandated under national laws and international regulations.
213. We welcome the continued implementation of the expanded Program of Co-operation by the Centre for Science and Technology of Non-Aligned Movement Countries and call upon all Non-Aligned and other developing countries to subscribe to the Statute of the Centre and to strengthen the Centre financially.
214. We urge member states to pay particular attention to the implementation of decisions taken at the Third United Nations Conference on the Exploration and Peaceful Uses of Outer Space (UNISPACE III), held in Vienna from 19 to 30 July 1999. In this regard, we welcome UNGA Resolution 54/68 that takes note of the outcomes of this Conference and their implementation. Of special importance here are the voluntary contributions to the Trust Fund for the purpose of implementing the recommendations of UNISPACE III. Particular attention should also be paid to the equitable and preferential access by developing countries to the new technologies and to the strengthening of their capabilities to use the applications of space research for economic, social and cultural development.
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215. We underline that Non-Aligned Countries should intensify the development of communication technology as a means of redressing the continued imbalances and inequalities between developed and developing countries in the field of information and communication.
216. We urge Member Countries to enhance the functioning of the Non-Aligned News Agency Pool (NANAP) and the Broadcasting Organisation of Non-Aligned Countries (BONAC) and accelerating the process of setting up the New International Information Centres of the Non-Aligned Movement.
217. We express our concern over the increasing use of defamation and distortion of information by some mass media of developed countries, such as Radio Free Asia and Radio Marti, to destabilise the governments of Non-Aligned and other developing countries and called for an immediate end to such acts.
218. We express our concern over the undisguised attempts of some countries to eliminate the concept of a new equitable world information and communication order and stressed that the establishment of a new world information and communication order aimed at ensuring impartiality and balance in the information flow.
219. We call for the convening of the Sixth Conference of Ministers of Information and Communication of the Non-Aligned Movement (COMINAC-VI) at the earliest possible, in accordance with decision of the COMINAC-V, held in Abuja in September 1996.
220. We call on Member States to participate actively in the VII Film Festival of the Non-Aligned and Other Developing Countries to be held in Pyongyang, Democratic Peoples Republic of Korea, 13 21 September 2000, following the decision of the XII Summit of the Non-Aligned Countries to promote co-operation among Member States in the field of culture.
221. We express our concern the widening gap in information and technology between the developed and developing countries, particularly LDCs. While some developing countries have made important advances in this area, most developing countries are still a long way from being part of this unfolding technological revolution, particularly in pharmaceuticals, biotechnology, information and communication technologies. We reaffirm the need for the developed countries to show political commitment by promoting an enabling environment to narrow and close the digital, technological and information divide between the developed and developing countries, by strengthening, inter alia, the intellectual capital and resource base of developing countries, and providing access to transfer of technology and know-how.
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222. We are committed to further strengthening South-South Co-operation. In this context, we emphasise the importance of appropriate strategies and mechanisms, for promoting, accelerated economic growth and development and self-reliance, giving a greater dynamism to the world economy, and promoting the restructuring of the international economic relations. Developing countries should accelerate the establishment of new South-South relations by broadening and intensifying South-South Co-operation. Drawing on the successes and experiences made in the South-South Co-operation so far, we should orchestrate the strategies for South-South Co-operation suited to a new situation and continue to initiate new projects, including those in social and economic fields in order to ensure effective participation in the international economy.
223. We emphasise the urgent need to continue examining the modalities as well as the means of implementation of the various proposals contained in the final document of the XII NAM Summit, especially those concerning the establishment of a monetary fund, commodity fund and a fund for social and economic development.
224. We reiterate that South-South Co-operation is an essential mechanism for promoting the sustainable economic self-support and in bolstering new South-South relations by broadening and intensifying economic co-operation among developing countries.
225. We stress the need to broaden and deepen South-South Co-operation through enhanced regional and sub-regional co-operation, pooling of resources, strengthening our effectiveness in multilateral processes and organisations. We also stress the need to broaden and deepen South-South Co-operation efforts in respect of international trade, economic and development issues, as well as through the sharing of relevant expertise and experiences to increase the productivity and competitiveness of our economies.
226. We welcome the convening of the South Summit that will take place in Havana, Cuba from 10 to 14 April of this year. This will be the perfect fora for strengthening south-south relations and for establishing a working plan of action that continues to broaden the co-operation among our countries and that provide us with new impetus for the North-South dialogue. We call on all countries and organisations of the South to give their full support to the South Summit and to ensure its successful outcome.
227. We stress the need to intensify the process of strengthening the various inter-regional dialogues and the exchange of experiences among regional and sub-regional economic groupings for the purposes of expanding South-South Co-operation through integrating the modalities of economic and technical co-operation among developing countries.
228. We take note of the important and positive co-ordination of work of the Non-Aligned Movement and the Group of 77 through the Joint Co-ordinating Committee (JCC) in the promotion and defence of the common interests of the developing countries and agree that they should jointly sponsor draft resolutions as appropriate based on past practice, in future sessions of the General Assembly.
229. We call upon the NAM Members and other developing countries and developed countries as well as international organisations to extend support to the NAM Centre for South-South Technical Co-operation in Jakarta by contributing to the future programmes and activities. Furthermore, we appeal to all NAM Member States to maximise the utilisation of the Centre as one of the vital and effective means for promoting and accelerating technical co-operation for the enhancement of the people-centred development and capitalisation of local resources through interaction among development sectors in partnership in development.
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230. The socio-economic situation in Africa remains precarious despite many efforts made by African countries, individually and collectively, to lay a solid foundation for Africa's development. In the context of globalisation and liberalisation, we are concerned that the decline in ODA flows to Africa will increase the marginalization of the continent in the global economy. We are also deeply concerned that FDI flows to Africa account for a mere 2% of the total FDI flows to developing countries. In this respect, we continue to call for the reversal of this negative trend. Furthermore, the FDI can only complement concessional finance and not replace it.
231. We lend our unequivocal support to the efforts of African countries to realise the objectives of Africa's Renaissance which are underpinned by collective self-reliance, agrarian reform, industrialisation, human resources development, social development, diversification of African economies and increase in both employment and income levels. We further welcome the growing trend in Africa towards regional and sub-regional economic and political co-operation and integration.
232. In this regard, we welcome the convening in Cairo on 3 and 4 April 2000 of the first Africa-Europe Summit under the aegis of the OAU and the EU.
233. We are deeply concerned over the continuing declining rate of economic growth of the Least Developed Countries (LDCs) as a group, with no sign of change in this trend, in spite of the broad structural and economic reform measures undertaken by them. The problems of the shrinking aid levels, the continuing decline in ODA, and Foreign Direct Investment, the heavy debt burden, lack of market access, supply side constraints and a decline in commodity prices hinder the growth of LDCs. We note that whilst the debt burden for the LDC┤ s continues to increase considerably, the flow of Foreign Direct Investment remains insignificant.
234. In view of the negative impact on the economic growth of the LDC┤ s resulting from the fall in ODA, we call upon all donor countries to live up to their commitments to achieve the internationally agreed ODA target of 0.15% of their GNP to the LDC┤ s and to endeavour to reach the target of 0.20% of their GNP by the year 2000. We further ask the developed countries to implement effective measures to provide easy access to their market for the products of LDC┤ s and also write-off their debt in order to enable them to strengthen their ability to develop. Given the overwhelming dependence of the LDC┤ s on external assistance for their capacity building, establishment of basic institutional infrastructure and strengthening of potential to attract foreign direct investment, the uninterrupted and promised level of flow of ODA is essential to economic growth.
235. Noting the additional costs incurred by land-locked developing countries in developing their import and export markets, we call on the international community to give special attention and support to the special development problems and needs of these countries, particularly through technical co-operation with and financial assistance by developed countries and multilateral financial institutions to enable these countries to effectively participate in a rapidly globalising world economy.
236. We note that transit developing countries face serious economic problems and that their efforts at developing a viable transit infrastructure also need financial and technical from the international community. We note that in some cases regional integration and co-operation efforts have also provided additional solutions to the specific problems confronting land-locked countries.
237. We welcome the outcome of the twenty-second Special Session of the General Assembly held on 27 and 28 September 1999 to review and appraise the implementation of the Programme of Action for the Sustainable Development of Small Island Developing States (SIDS).
238. While reaffirming our full support for the system-wide Implementation of the Programme of Action for the Sustainable Development of SIDS, we recognise the efforts made by SIDS to implement the Programme of Action. In this regard, we note with concern that the support of the international community has been affected by financial and other resource constraints and by global economic and environmental factors.
239. We reaffirm the need for the provision of adequate, predictable, new and additional financial resources, transfer of environmentally sound technologies on concessional and preferential terms, and the promotion of non-discriminatory trading arrangements and we urge all countries, in particular, developed countries to fulfil the commitments contained in the Programme of Action for the Sustainable Development of SIDS.