Basic Documents: Final Document
4. The Heads of State or Government emphasised that even when the spectre of a nuclear holocaust seemed more remote than in the recent past and several countries had resolved to reduce their military budgets in order to devote such resources to meet the social and economic development requirements of their people, great powers continue to endanger the future of humankind through the unjustified stockpiling and development of nuclear weapons and other weapons of mass destruction and a rampant traffic in armaments continues to put in jeopardy the security and stability of vast regions of the world.
5. The Heads of State or Government emphasised that the world today is still far from being a peaceful, just and secure place. Simmering disputes, violent conflicts, aggression and foreign occupation, interference in the internal affairs of States, policies of hegemony and domination, ethnic strife, religious intolerance, xenophobia, new forms of racism and narrowly conceived nationalism are, inter alia, major and dangerous obstacles to harmonious coexistence among States and peoples and have even led to the disintegration of States and societies.
6. The Heads of State or Government expressed their concern over the adverse external economic environment that continue to impact negatively upon the economies of the developing countries. The exports of these countries continue to be hampered by all forms of protectionism and their development efforts remain impaired by inordinate burdens of external indebtedness and restricted and volatile short-term financial flows, which have resulted in an overall net transfer of resources to the developed countries, and by a lack of adequate access to technology.
7. The Heads of State or Government reiterated that some States seek to unilaterally impose their policies, cultural and social criteria on developing countries and to exercise their power and influence in international organisations and agencies. The experience of the Member Countries of Non-Aligned Movement indeed show that some powerful members of the international community continue to insist on accepting their models, perceptions and norms set by them to perpetuate their privileges, as standards for universal behaviour. Moreover, attempts are increasingly being made to use the United Nations to this end. Consequently, countries of the Non-Aligned Movement are increasingly the object of unilateral or multilateral interventionism in their internal affairs under various pretexts. In this connection, they agreed that it is important to express solidarity with any member of the Movement who is a victim of economic coercive measures, interference in internal affairs, use or threat of use of military power, isolation and discrimination, imposed in opposition to principles of the Non-Aligned Movement and the Charter of the United Nations.
8. The Heads of State or Government reaffirmed the Non-Aligned Movement principles and the sanctity of the United Nations Charter and reiterated their firm condemnation of all unilateral military actions or threats of military action against the sovereignty, territorial integrity and independence of the members of the Movement which constitute acts of aggression and blatant violations of the principle of non-intervention and non-interference. In this context they strongly condemned the policies and practices of those who had targeted some Non-Aligned Movement Member Countries for unilateral military actions.
9. The Heads of State or Government were of the view that the collapse of the bipolar system, while raising hope for ensuring a universal, just and durable peace that are yet to be fulfilled, have resulted in a worrisome and damaging uni-polarity in political and military terms that is conducive to further inequality and injustice and, therefore, to a more complex and disquieting world situation. They felt that this fact has been acknowledged in positions taken even by countries outside the Non-Aligned Movement, and emphasised that the Member Countries of Non-Aligned Movement should work further towards the establishment of a new system of international relations characterised by an absence of want, fear and all forms of intolerance, and based on peace, justice, equality, democracy and full respect for principles enshrined in the United Nations Charter and international law. In this context, they reaffirmed their conviction that the Movement should continue to play an active and effective role in the attainment of that objective.
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10. The Heads of State or Government recognised that Cold War era legacies such as foreign occupation, foreign military bases, the use or threat of use of force, pressure, interference in internal affairs and sanctions inconsistent with international law, still constitute a main disturbing factor to establishing fair and equitable international relations conforming with the strong desire of the overwhelming majority of governments and peoples and emphasised the need to continue with their consolidated efforts for the removal of such legacies.
11. The Heads of State or Government were also of the view that these circumstances compel the Movement more than ever to work towards co-operation and a sense of full partnership in the international field, for the promotion of peace and social and economic development.
12. The Heads of State or Government reaffirmed the need to protect and promote the principles and objectives of the independence, territorial integrity and sovereignty of States, the attainment of general and complete disarmament under effective international control, the right of peoples under colonial or other forms of alien domination or foreign occupation to realise their right to self-determination, equality among nations, full respect for international law, pacific settlement of disputes, the democratisation of international relations, economic and social development, an equitable international economic order, the development of human resources, the protection and promotion of all human rights and fundamental freedoms, including the right to development, and the coexistence of different systems, cultures and societies. In this context, they emphasised the need for the pursuit of their objectives through a dynamic adaptation to the new realities and the promotion of a more just and equitable system of international relations, as well as through the articulation of appropriate strategies, initiatives and projects.
13. The Heads of State or Government reiterated that while the end of the Cold War should have brought greater attention and concern to economic and social development issues on the part of the international community, they had not yet reached the pre-eminence that was required nor the degree of commitment necessary to resolve the serious problems faced by countries such as those of the Movement. In fact, in recent years, there had been a decline in resources made available for international development co-operation. The emergence of the market-based paradigm of development had also been accompanied by efforts to shift the entire onus for international development co-operation to the private sector. They reaffirmed the role of the State in development and in international co-operation for development.
14. Furthermore, the Heads of State or Government had noticed the emergence of a trend in developed countries to ignore their past commitments and to marginalise financing of development from international negotiations, to introduce new conditionalities and to erode and distort long-standing concepts to the detriment of Non-Aligned Countries and other developing countries. They therefore stressed the need for the Movement to ensure an active presence in international economic and commercial negotiations, with strong, concerted and common positions.
15. The Heads of State or Government underlined that the international situation continued to be very fluid. The climate of uncertainty persisted. The tendency to focus attention primarily on the interests and concerns of a limited number of developed countries continued, while recent commitments made in some major areas of international co-operation remained unfulfilled. The interests of the developing countries continued to be marginalised. Private foreign investment tended to be concentrated in a few developing countries and a few sectors, and a significant part of these flows was speculative and volatile in nature. The social and economic infrastructure in the developing countries was lagging behind, constraining growth prospects. It was imperative that this state of affairs be rectified as a matter of priority. The fundamental requirement of development must be reflected in the new priorities of international co-operation.
16. The Heads of State or Government underlined the fact that the gap between the developed and developing countries, especially the LDCs, continued to widen, and reiterated that the problems deriving from poverty and social injustices, far from being overcome, had been significantly aggravated. They expressed particular concern over the economic situation in LDCs, the majority of which were located in Africa. They noted further that economic underdevelopment, poverty and social injustice constituted a source of frustration and a cause of new conflicts, and that stability, security, democracy and peace could not be consolidated without rectifying the growing international inequalities. They therefore felt that there was an urgent need to regenerate the economies of the LDCs in order to achieve sustained growth and sustainable development, including through the full and effective implementation of the special measures incorporated in the Programme of Action for the 1990's for the LDCs.
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17. The Heads of State or Government particularly emphasised that the high social cost of the structural adjustment and opening up of the economies of the countries of the Movement should not be borne by developing countries alone, especially the poorest sectors of their population. It was the developed countries that have derived the greatest benefits from this change in the world economy, while the alarming concentration of wealth in a few hands, a consequence of the unbridled market economy, heralded social instability. Therefore they found it unacceptable that rich and powerful nations continued to establish unilateral conditionalities on open trade, a concept which they themselves promoted, to gain advantages from the countries of the Movement, or what was even worse, to impose standards or push through stances intended to satisfy their internal political needs. They declared that to demand from the countries of the Movement the opening up of their economies while imposing restrictions and tariff obstructions on their products is a morally reprehensible conduct.
18. The Heads of State or Government pointed out that the globalisation of the world economy, aided by the revolution in communications and data processing, had created new challenges and opportunities. However, this globalisation process had translated itself into an increased marginalisation for the majority of the developing countries.
19. The Heads of State or Government in this context, underlined that the prevalence of neo-liberal policies placed an even larger strain on the economies of Non-Aligned and other developing countries and stressed the need to enhance the role of developing countries in the international economy.
20. The Heads of State or Government noted that while the benefits of the deepening interdependence amongst economies were clearly manifested in the developed countries, they had been fragile in the case of the developing countries as a whole. They therefore called for the implementation of measures by the international community to create a more balanced and participatory system of international economic relations in which such interdependence would benefit all nations.
21. The Heads of State or Government reaffirmed that all nations have the inalienable right to freely establish their own political and economic systems and take measures to safeguard their security on the basis of the purposes and principles of the Charter of the United Nations, including respect for the principles of national sovereignty, territorial integrity, self-determination and non-interference in the internal affairs of others.
22. The Heads of State or Government expressed their serious concern over the tendency on the part of the developed countries to forge broad fronts against developing countries with a view to exerting economic pressures for securing their strategic and political objectives. In this context, they opposed the imposition of sanctions in blatant disregard of the UN Charter and the mandates of the international financial institutions.
23. The Heads of State or Government condemned the continued enactment by certain countries of extra- territorial legislation, and their imposition of unilateral coercive economic measures against certain developing countries, with a view to preventing these countries from the exercise of their right to determine, with their total free will, their own political, economic and social system. They called on all States not to recognise the unilateral, extra- territorial laws enacted by certain countries which impose sanctions on companies and individuals belonging to other countries, since such legislation is contrary to the norms of international law, and the purposes and principles of the United Nations.
24. The Heads of State or Government reiterated their satisfaction at the important role that the General Assembly exert in maintaining international peace and security in accordance with Resolution 377 of the General Assembly of 3 November 1950, entitled: "Uniting for Peace", which led to the convening of the Tenth Emergency Special Session on "Illegal Israeli actions in occupied East Jerusalem and the rest of the occupied Palestinian territory" as called for by the XIIth Ministerial Conference of the Movement.
25. In this regard, the Heads of State or Government welcomed with appreciation the most recent decisions adopted by the General Assembly to strengthen and revitalise its role as the highest deliberative and decision-making organ of the United Nations, in which all Member States participate equally. In particular, they cited the decisions related to the consideration by the General Assembly of the Reports of other main organs, especially the Report of the Security Council to the General Assembly and the Report of the Secretary General on the work of the Organisation, as an important step towards a more balanced and sustained interaction between the General Assembly and these organs. Nevertheless, proposals to erode or weaken the comprehensive mandate of the General Assembly and actions geared at preventing it from fulfilling the leading role assigned to it by the United Nations Charter are totally unacceptable.
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26. The Heads of State or Government reiterated the Non-Aligned Countries' commitment to respect the principles and objectives of Non-Alignment and expressed their determination to make every effort to further strengthen the Non-Aligned Movement's capacity for action and to develop concrete modalities to enhance the influence and impact of its decisions on world affairs.
27. The Heads of State or Government believed that it is imperative for the Movement to fulfil its aims and objectives as a fundamental contribution to the development, peace and well-being of its Member Countries. In that regard, they underscored the need to realistically consider the Movement's priorities in a dramatically-changing global setting, where the threats to the security, stability and development prospects of Non-Aligned and other developing countries have become increasingly acute. In this context, the solidarity and unity among Non-Aligned Movement Countries should continue to be strengthened if the opportunities and challenges of globalisation and the dangers of the current world situation are to be efficiently faced. Priority should continue to be attached by the international community to development co-operation and equitable international economic relations. It is imperative for the Movement to set achievable priority areas for South-South Co-operation as part of a strategy to give renewed impetus to international co-operation for development.
28. The Heads of State or Government, reaffirming their faith and commitment to the purposes and principles of the Charter of the United Nations, stressed the necessity for further co-operation in strengthening the important role played by the Non-Aligned countries within the United Nations, which more than ever should be increased.
29. The Heads of State or Government agreed to evolve a mechanism for the enhancement of the role of the Non-Aligned Movement in conformity with changes in the international situation, so that the Movement as spokesman representing the interests and aspirations of Non-Aligned and other developing countries, will be able to respond effectively and expeditiously to the challenges raised in a new millennium, on the basis of common positions agreed by members.
30. The Heads of State or Government expressed their appreciation to the members of the Ad-Hoc Panel of Economists of the Movement of Non-Aligned Countries who, in accordance with the mandate given by the XIIth Ministerial Conference held in New Delhi, prepared an assessment of the current international economic situation from the perspective of the developing countries, in order to assist in developing a positive agenda of the South and, accordingly, reported to the XIIth Summit of the Movement, held in South Africa.
31. In connection with the formulation of a pro-active economic agenda for the South, the Heads of State or Government noted the proceedings of the Roundtable on the Report of the Non-Aligned Movement Ad-Hoc Panel of Economists. They also welcomed the Report of the Moderator on the Roundtable and the summary of the way forward contained in the Report. In particular, they agreed that South Africa, as the current Chair, carry out consultations with Member States, including through the Co-ordinating Bureau in New York, members of the panel and other relevant experts to develop a proposal, including practical steps to devise a precise economic agenda for the South, which should be presented to the Standing Ministerial Committee for Economic Co-operation during the first half of 1999.
32. The Heads of State or Government expressed their satisfaction with regards to the tasks performed by the Non-Aligned Movement Troika to enhance the role of the Movement and promote dialogue with the developed countries. In this regard, they underlined the importance of the full participation of all members of the Movement through the Non-Aligned Movement Co-ordinating Bureau, in shaping the mandate and agenda of Troika meetings. They also agreed on the timely reporting of the outcome of these meetings to the Co-ordinating Bureau.
33. The Heads of State or Government reiterated the importance of the message conveyed by the President of Colombia as the Chair of the Movement of Non-Aligned Countries, to the Group of Eight in keeping with the mandate contained in "The Call from Colombia", adopted by the Heads of State or Government at the Eleventh Summit and as elaborated in the Final Document of the XIIth Ministerial Meeting held in New Delhi. They emphasised how important it is for the Movement to continue its consultations with the G-8 with a view to promote a meaningful and productive dialogue so as to reach better understanding and to respond more positively to the development aspirations of the developing countries.
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34. The Heads of State or Government reaffirmed the mandate of the Cartagena Final Document of the Eleventh Conference of the Heads of State or Government on the Non-Aligned Countries, and reiterated the need for the Movement to enhance its unity and cohesion and co-ordinate positions of Member Countries towards major international issues, with the view to strengthening their negotiating leverage vis-à-vis developed countries.
35. The Heads of State or Government reiterated that co-ordination was one of the bases of the Movement of Non-Aligned Countries and they called for the holding of joint Non-Aligned Movement actions in the context of important international conferences and meetings as a means of furthering Non-Aligned Movement's positions and aspirations in all fields of international relations.
36. The Heads of State or Government reaffirmed the leading role of the Co-ordinating Bureau and commended the work carried out by its Working Groups on various fields in New York. They were of the view that those Working Groups should continue and expand their activities and that new Working Groups should be created as necessary with the increasing complexities in the work of the UN.
37. The Heads of State or Government emphasised that in order for the Movement to enhance its role at the international level, it must continue to work on expanding and reinforcing its ability and capacity for initiative, representation and negotiation, as well as its ethical, political and moral strength as the principal forum representing the interests and aspirations of the developing world. In this regard, they reaffirmed that full respect for the founding principles of the Movement adopted in Bandung (1955) and the principles set forth in the United Nations Charter is its irrevocable political and moral commitment. They considered that the role of the Movement in the attainment of its objectives hinge upon the solidarity of its members, its unity and cohesion, founded on a culture of peace and development, and require joint efforts to overcome areas of disagreement and resolve differences in a peaceful manner.
38. The Heads of State or Government reaffirmed their commitment to strongly resist and take a unified stand against policies and practices predicated on power politics and hegemony including the pursuit of unilateralism through military or economic coercion, and resolved to defend the sovereignty, independence and territorial integrity of members of the Movement.
39. The Heads of State or Government noted the important and positive role played by the Joint Co-ordination Committee of the Non-Aligned Movement and the Group of 77 (JCC) over the past few years in advancing common positions of the developing countries on different global issues. They were of the view that such contacts should be further strengthened and increased in order to harmonise the efforts and activities with a view to avoiding duplication and bringing greater coherence and consolidation to the unity and promotion of common interests on various global issues as well as in furthering greater interaction among the developing countries.
40. The Heads of State or Government decided to convene a Working Group entrusted with the task of defining and preparing by mid-1999 a complete plan of action for the Movement, on the basis of the decisions taken by the XIIth Summit, which will be in force up to the XIIIth Summit in the year 2001. They decided further that the Working Group would report to the Ministerial Meeting on Methodology through Co-ordinating Bureau.
41. The Heads of State or Government underscored the role of Non-Aligned Movement in furthering economic growth and development of the Non-Aligned Countries and expressed their determination to promote programmes of economic and technical co-operation among its members. In this context, they were of the view that new economic and technical co-operation programmes should be realistic and concentrated in fields of common interest that would allow the enhancement of scarce resources and provide an aggregate value of interest to all Non-Aligned Movement Countries.
42. The Heads of State or Government reaffirmed that solidarity among its members is a must for the Movement, mainly when NAM Countries are threatened from abroad through acts of aggression, the threat to use force or unilateral coercive measures, all of which are, by nature, contrary to the principles of the Movement and of international law. In this regard, they expressed their rejection of attempts by any Member Countries to take a position in contradiction to the principles and objectives of the Movement at the instigation of outside forces, which negatively affect the unity and solidarity of the Movement.
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43. The Heads of State or Government expressed their concern at attempts to suggest divisions between cultures and civilisations, and reiterated that despite conflict and war throughout human history, positive interaction and fusion between cultures and civilisations have continued for the benefit of all humanity, and expressed their resolve to facilitate and promote enhanced dialogue between cultures and civilisations at the turn of the millennium.
44. The Heads of State or Government hoped that the next millennium would offer an opportunity to conduct a North-South dialogue based on the mutuality of interest and benefits, shared responsibilities and genuine interdependence. Therefore, recognising the importance of North-South partnership and dialogue, they called on the developed countries to engage in constructive dialogue and partnership with the South. They emphasised that this dialogue and partnership should encompass the strengthening of intergovernmental co-operation, including the need to achieve the necessary coherence of policies of multilateral institutions.
45. The Heads of State or Government underscored the importance of North-South dialogue and partnership for the mobilisation of human and material resources for the elimination of global inequalities among States, taking fully into account the interest of the developing countries.
46. The Heads of State or Government observed that efforts should continue to be made, taking into account the interests of all members of the Movement, to evolve a common position on the elements of "An Agenda for Peace" and its Supplement. They recognised that the principles of the United Nations Charter and international law were applicable to the elements contained in an Agenda for Peace and its Supplement.
47. The Heads of State or Government underscored the need for the United Nations to implement immediately the decisions as contained in the annexes to resolution A51/242 of the General Assembly, particularly in the area of sanctions imposed by the United Nations. They also underlined the request made to the President of the General Assembly to consult on the possibility of continuing the activities of the informal Open-Ended Working Group on An Agenda for Peace in the areas of Post-Conflict Peace-Building and Preventive Diplomacy and Peace-Making on the basis of the work already accomplished in these areas and with a view to concluding its work.
48. The Heads of State or Government recalled that the imposition of sanctions is an issue of serious concern for Non-Aligned Countries. They reaffirmed that the imposition of sanctions in accordance with the Charter should be considered only after all means of peaceful settlement of disputes under Chapter VI of the Charter has been exhausted and a thorough consideration undertaken of the short and long-term effects of such sanctions. Sanctions are a blunt instrument, the use of which raise fundamental ethical questions of whether suffering inflicted on vulnerable groups in the target country are legitimate means of exerting pressure. The objectives of sanctions is not to punish or otherwise exact retribution.
49. The Heads of State or Government reiterated that the objectives of sanctions regimes should be clearly defined. Sanctions should be lifted as soon as the objectives are achieved. They should be imposed for a specified time-frame and based on tenable, legal grounds. The conditions demanded of the country or party on which sanctions are imposed should be clearly defined and subject to periodic review. Attempts to impose or to prolong the application of sanctions to achieve political ends should be rejected.
50. The Heads of State or Government also reiterated that all sanctions regimes must contain specific and appropriate measures to ensure that humanitarian supplies reach the affected, innocent populations. Efforts must also be made to ensure that the development capacity of the target country is not adversely affected by sanction regimes.
51. The Heads of State or Government stressed that the functioning of the Sanctions Committee require further improvement. In this context they welcomed the proposals that had been made by NAM in the Sub-group on Sanctions of the Open-Ended Working Group of the General Assembly on an Agenda for Peace. They called upon the Co-ordinating Bureau to pursue efforts to have those proposals implemented.
52. The Heads of State or Government underscored the need to operationalise Article 50 of the Charter, particularly by establishing a mechanism, including a Fund, to provide relief to third countries affected by United Nations sanctions.
53. The Heads of State or Government further expressed concern over the increasing use of the term "preventive action" in the absence of an agreed definition or understanding of this term, as well as inadequate clarification of its implications on United Nations activities and resources. They urged that the General Assembly develop guidelines for the UN on this matter.
54. The Heads of State or Government reaffirmed that without prejudice to the competence of the other principal organs of the United Nations' respective roles in Post-Conflict Peace Building (PCPB) activities, the General Assembly must have the key role in the formulation of PCPB activities. In this regard, they recognised as well the importance of the concerted actions of international agencies to support actively national programmes for reconstruction and rehabilitation, including the promotion of a culture of peace which paves the way for the achievement of economic and social development.
55. The Heads of State or Government noted the decisions adopted by the General Assembly with regard to the reform proposals presented by the Secretary General in his report: "Renewing the United Nations: A Program for Reform". They underscored the constructive and flexible attitude shown by the members of the Non-Aligned Movement while in the process of discussion of the above-mentioned decisions.
56. The Heads of State or Government recognised the importance of reinforcing the United Nations for the challenges of the new millennium and in this context stressed the need to keep under close intergovernmental oversight and review the implementation of the decisions adopted by the General Assembly in its resolutions 52/12 A and B with regards to the reform proposals presented by the Secretary-General in his report, "Renewing the United Nations: A Program for Reform", as well as a continuous assessment of their implications. While implementing those decisions, they also stressed the need to take into account the views expressed by Member States during the process of consideration of those decisions, including those subjects and aspects where the overwhelming majority coincided in formulating precise and clear guidelines.
57. The Heads of State or Government stressed that the success of reforms could only be judged by real improvements in the functioning of the United Nations and its ability to make its impact felt on the lives of all people, especially the citizens of the developing countries. They stressed that any further efforts regarding United Nations reform should focus on strengthening the role of the Organisation in the promotion of development. In this regard, they stressed that in conjunction with the Group of 77, they welcomed the establishment of a post of Deputy Secretary General with the duty of striving for a "more visible and distinguished role of the United Nations in the economic and social spheres, including the on-going efforts to re-enforce the work of the United Nations as a main centre for politics of development, as well as for assistance for development."
58. The Heads of State or Government reiterated that the reform process should preserve the centrality and sanctity of the purposes and principles of the United Nations Charter and General Assembly mandates. The process should also enable the organisation to meet the challenges of contemporary times. In this regard, they reiterated the importance of the General Assembly as the main elaborative and decision-making organ of the United Nations in which all member states participate equally. They stressed that any reform proposals challenging the importance of the General Assembly would be unacceptable.
59. The Heads of State or Government reiterated the concern expressed at the XIIth Ministerial Conference in New Delhi, at the weakening of the role and functioning of the General Assembly, the principal organ of the United Nations in which all Member States are represented, and called for the restoration of the balance between its role and that of the Security Council, as mandated in the United Nations Charter. In this context, the due accountability of the Security Council to the General Assembly should be encouraged. They also noted the conclusion of work of the Open-Ended Working Group on the Strengthening of the United Nations System, and called for the full implementation of the recommendations as contained in the annex to General Assembly resolution 51/241.
60. The Heads of State or Government stressed that the proposals of the Secretary-General requiring further consideration by the General Assembly should be discussed through an open and transparent procedure, and not be subjected to any imposed time-frame. In this regard, all delegations should have the opportunity to participate effectively in discussions and negotiations on all proposals.
61. The Heads of State or Government discussed the proposal of the Secretary-General regarding time limits for new initiatives and/or future mandates of the United Nations and, in this regard, stressed the urgent need for the General Assembly to undertake a thorough and continuing examination and assessment of the proposal in all its aspects, notably its impact on the programmes and activities of the Organisation, fully taking into account its wide-ranging scope and diversity, as well as the existing mechanisms of evaluation. They instructed the members of the Movement to be vigilant on this proposal and examine it in depth and on a continuous basis during the General Assembly's consideration of this matter. In this context, they reiterated that the medium-term plan constitute the principal policy directive of the United Nations and reaffirmed in this regard, General Assembly resolution 41/213.
62. The Heads of State or Government also highlighted the urgent need to further reactivate existing mechanisms within NAM in order to build and strengthen developing countries' position in all pending issues on reform and called upon their Permanent Missions in New York to work actively in this regard.
63. The Heads of State or Government reviewed the institutional changes introduced in the United Nations relating to humanitarian assistance, including the transfer to the UNDP of the co-ordination of activities related to natural disaster mitigation relief and preparedness. They welcomed the establishment of the post of the United Nations Emergency Relief Co-ordinator, who would continue to co-ordinate emergency relief and assistance to affected countries. They stressed that humanitarian assistance should be neutral and impartial, be provided at the request of the county concerned, and fully respect its territorial integrity and sovereignty. Existing capacities in developing countries which are available closer to the site of a disaster, and often at a lower cost, must be fully utilised. They noted that the separate "Humanitarian Affairs segment" of ECOSOC had provided the necessary profile to this issue and was useful in promoting enhanced co-ordination of humanitarian assistance.
64. The Heads of State or Government comprehensively reviewed discussions on the reform and restructuring of the Security Council, in the light of the position papers adopted by the Movement on 13 February 1995, 20 May 1996, the Non-Aligned Movement negotiating paper dated 11 March 1997, the decisions of the Cartagena Summit, the Twelfth Ministerial Conference in New Delhi, 7-8 April 1997, the Ministerial Meeting in New York on 25 September 1997 and the Ministerial Meeting of the Co-ordinating Bureau in Cartagena, 19-20 May 1998.
65. In conformity with the New Delhi Declaration regarding the necessity to attain general agreement, the Heads of State or Government reaffirmed their determination that any resolution with Charter amendment implications must be adopted by the two thirds majority of the United Nations membership referred to in Article 108 of the Charter.
66. The Heads of State or Government recalled that discussions in the Open-Ended Working Group on the Question of Equitable Representation and Increase in the Membership of the Security Council and other matters related to the Security Council have shown that while a convergence of views has emerged on a number of issues, important differences still exist on many others. They noted that the Open-Ended Working Group will resume its discussions and underlined the necessity of the Movement maintaining its unity and solidarity on this critical issue. They reaffirmed that the Movement should, in the ensuing negotiations, continue to pursue directives given by the Cartagena Summit and contained in the Movement's position papers. The Movement would be guided by the following considerations in approaching the issue of Security Council reform in discussions at the UN:
67. The Heads of State or Government reaffirmed that efforts at restructuring the Security Council shall not be subject to any imposed time-frame. While recognising the importance of treating this issue as a matter of urgent attention, no effort should be made to decide this issue before general agreement is reached.
68. The Heads of State or Government reaffirmed the Non-Aligned Movement proposal that if there is no agreement on other categories of membership, expansion should take place only, for the time being, in the non-permanent category.
69. The Heads of State or Government reaffirmed the Non-Aligned Movement proposal that the veto should be curtailed with a view to its elimination and that the Charter should be amended so that, as a first step, veto power should only apply to actions taken under Chapter VII of the Charter.
70. The Heads of State or Government underlined the need for a coherent and co-ordinated approach by the Movement in the ensuing discussions in the Open-Ended Working Group. Mindful of the importance of reaching general agreement, as reflected, inter alia, in United Nations General Assembly resolution 48/26, they called for fuller discussions of various proposals submitted to the Working Group.
71. The Heads of State or Government stressed the importance of enhancing the transparency of the Security Council through the improvement of its working methods and its decision-making process. They called on the Open-Ended Working Group to agree on and the General Assembly to recommend specific substantive measures to be implemented by the Security Council based on the measures proposed in the Non-Aligned Movement negotiating paper on Cluster II issues. They also urged the Security Council to institutionalise such measures, and stressed that a commitment to institutionalise them should be an element of a package agreement on the reform of the Security Council.
72. The Heads of State or Government called upon their Permanent Missions in New York to actively pursue the above positions in the framework of the ongoing discussions on Security Council expansion and reform.
73. The Heads of State or Government recalled United Nations General Assembly resolution 51/193 and in this regard called for a significant improvement in the annual report of the Security Council of the General Assembly. They also urged the Security Council to provide, when necessary, special reports to the General Assembly in accordance with Articles 15 and 24 of the UN Charter.
74. The Heads of State or Government expressed their satisfaction with the active participation in and contribution to the work of the Open-Ended Working Groups on UN reform by the Non-Aligned Countries and encouraged them to continue to promote the Non-Aligned Movement positions in these and other fora.
75. The Heads of State or Government underscored the intergovernmental character of the General Assembly and its subsidiary bodies. Efforts to strengthen the contribution of Non-Governmental Organisations to the work of the United Nations and its bodies should be through existing consultative arrangements of ECOSOC.
76. The Heads of State or Government reaffirmed the guiding principles regarding peace-keeping operations contained in the Final Document adopted by the XIth Ministerial Conference in Cairo on the 3rd of June 1994.
77. The Heads of State or Government welcomed the adoption of United Nations General Assembly resolution 51/218E on uniform and standardised rates for the reimbursement of death and disability sustained by troops serving in UN peace-keeping operations.
78. They urged that it should be ensured that uniformed and standardised compensation is extended to all cases of death and disability of troops and observers deployed in United Nations peace-keeping operations.
79. The Heads of State or Government reaffirmed that the funding of United Nations peace-keeping operations through voluntary contributions should not influence UN Security Council decisions to establish peace-keeping operations or affect their mandate. They stressed the need for regular and institutionalised consultations between troop-contributing countries and the Security Council. They also stressed the need to differentiate between peace-keeping operations and humanitarian assistance.
80. The Heads of State or Government, while fully appreciative of the important role played by the United Nations Special Committee on Peace-Keeping operations and welcoming its enlargement, stressed that it is the competent forum with the mandate to comprehensively review the whole question of peace-keeping operations in all their aspects.
81. The Heads of State or Government reiterated their concern over the staffing structure of the Department of Peace-Keeping Operations of the UN Secretariat whereby Non-Aligned Movement Member Countries were insufficiently represented. They welcomed the adoption of United Nations General Assembly resolutions 52/234 and 52/248 providing for the phase-out of all gratis personnel before the end of February 1999. They stressed that, on the basis of equitable geographical representation, personnel from Non-Aligned Movement Member Countries should be sufficiently represented amongst the personnel for the new posts to be created in lieu of the phasing out of gratis personnel.
82. The Heads of State or Government, while maintaining their view that every effort should be made to accelerate this process, reaffirmed their call to the United Nations Secretary-General that the recruitment and assignment of personnel for the posts previously occupied by loaned personnel be consistent with the requirements of Articles 100 and 101 of the UN Charter. They particularly underscored the importance of recruiting staff on as wide a geographical basis as possible.
83. The Heads of State or Government expressed satisfaction at the work of the Non-Aligned Movement Working Group on Peace-Keeping Operations, chaired by Thailand, contributing to enhancing the co-ordination of the Non-Aligned delegations on this important issue.
84. The Heads of State or Government expressed concern at the initiative by a few non-Non-Aligned Movement countries to establish their own Standby High Readiness Brigade (SHIRBRIG), which is not part of the UN Standby Arrangements System. In this regard, they reaffirmed that the UN Standby Arrangements System is key to the increased effectiveness and rapid deployment of United Nations peace-keeping operations. They also reaffirmed that the planning and deployment of United Nations peace-keeping operations should be within the context of the United Nations Standby Arrangements System, which is open to all Member States. They took note of the UN Secretariat's affirmation that the Standby Arrangement System is based on contributions from individual Member States and that there is no United Nations peace-keeping brigade. In this regard, they emphasised that the name of the United Nations should not be used arbitrarily by individual States or groups in their activities without a relevant UN resolution, since the United Nations is the world's most universal international organisation comprising 185 sovereign states.
85. The Heads of State or Government noted the increasing use of civilian police personnel in United Nations peace-keeping operations. They stressed the importance of developing at an early date agreed guidelines on the principles governing the role of civilian police personnel in United Nations peace-keeping operations.
86. The Heads of State or Government expressed deep concern over the continued delays in their reimbursement of troop costs and a contingent-owned equipment leases. These delays in reimbursement caused hardship to all troop and equipment contributing countries, specifically the Non-Aligned Movement Countries, and adversely affect their capacity and possibly their will to participate in peace-keeping operations.
87. The Heads of State or Government, recalling the Secretary-General's proposals for procurement reform as outlined in A/52/534, emphasised the critical importance of timely, efficient, transparent and cost effective procurement of goods and services in support of peace-keeping operations. In this regard, they reiterated the need to ensure greater United Nations procurement from developing countries, particularly the Non-Aligned Movement Countries.
88. The Heads of State or Government expressed their concern at the deteriorating financial situation of the Organisation and reiterated that the primary cause of the financial crisis continue to be the failure on the part of certain developed countries to discharge fully, without conditions and on time, their assessed contribution to the Regular Budget and peace-keeping operations.
89. The Heads of State or Government again urged all countries in arrears to settle their outstanding dues without further delay and to pay their future assessments in full, on time, and without imposing preconditions.
90. The Heads of State or Government also expressed their concern at the continued cross-borrowing from the peace-keeping fund to the regular budget, resulting in the delay of reimbursement to the troop and contingent owned-equipment-providing countries, especially the Non-Aligned and other developing countries. They strongly urged all Member States to fulfil their legal obligations under the Charter to bring an end to this extraordinary practice. They exhorted all countries in arrears to pay their contributions as soon as possible to avoid the prolongation of this practice.
91. The Heads of State or Government reiterated that the expenses of peace-keeping operations are expenses of the United Nations to be borne by Member States in accordance with the relevant provisions of the Charter, as well as the existing special scale of assessments established by General Assembly resolutions 1874 (S-IV) of June 1963 and 3101 (XXVIII) of 11 December 1973 which take into account the special responsibilities of the five Permanent Members of the Security Council as well as other economic considerations. These contributions must therefore be paid in full, on time and without conditions. They further stressed that the principles and guidelines for the sharing of the costs of peace-keeping operations contained in the two resolutions 1874 (S-IV) and 3101 (XXVIII) must be institutionalised and adopted on a permanent basis. The Heads of State or Government underlined that Members of the Non-Aligned Movement and other developing countries shall be classified in a category that is no higher than group C.
92. The Heads of State or Government reaffirmed the importance of maintaining the principle of capacity to pay as a fundamental criteria in the apportionment of the expenses of the Organisation. They noted with interest that the scale of assessments for the period 1998-2000 took into consideration the economic conditions of the developing countries. They reiterated as unacceptable any unilateral attempt at modifying the scale of assessment through conditionalities contrary to the principles of the United Nations. It was emphasised that a reduction in the ceiling of the scale of assessments, in the regular budget, will distort the principle of capacity to pay and is thus unacceptable.
93. The Heads of State or Government, while recalling the General Assembly resolutions on the programme budget for the biennium 1998-99, emphasised the need for having adequate resources in order to fully implement all mandated activities and programmes.
94. The Heads of State or Government expressed their concern at the initiative to arbitrarily categorise the various programmes and activities of the United Nations as non-programmes costs which are likely to adversely affect the ability of the Organisation to perform its mandated programmes and activities. Noting that all UN activities are under programme, they urged the Secretary-General not to undertake any such review without satisfying the technical questions raised by various Member States and other UN bodies.
95. The Heads of State or Government reaffirmed that all mandated activities and programmes should be carried out by international civil servants in accordance with Articles 100 and 101 of the United Nations Charter. They welcomed the provisions regarding the phasing out of gratis personnel as contained in United Nations General Assembly resolutions 52/234, and 52/248. They emphasised that the gratis personnel should be phased out expeditiously in accordance with United Nations General Assembly resolutions 52/234 and 52/248.
96. The Heads of State or Government emphasised the importance of the United Nations General Assembly resolution 52/226 and expressed their concern at the negligible share of Non-Aligned and other developing countries in the UN procurement. They also emphasised that the UN procurement should be on as wide a geographical basis as possible, with preferential treatment to the developing countries, with particular attention to the LDCs and African countries, in case of equally qualified vendors. In this connection, they noted the request made in resolution 52/226 to the Secretary-General for submission of a report on this subject during the 53rd Session of the General Assembly and instructed their respective delegations to work towards early adoption and timely implementation of the provision on preferential treatment to developing countries with regard to UN procurement.
97. The Heads of State or Government further underlined that the United Nations Suppliers Roster should be representative of the membership of the Organisation. In awarding procurement contracts, preference should be given to Member States that have fulfilled their financial obligations to the United Nations.
98. The Heads of State or Government highlighted the important role that regional arrangements and agencies, composed of Non-Aligned and other developing countries, can play in the promotion of regional peace and security, economic co-operation and economic and social development.
99. While reaffirming that the primary responsibility for international peace and security rest with the United Nations, the Heads of State or Government stressed that the role of regional arrangements or agencies, in that regard, should not in any way be substituted for the role of the United Nations, or circumvent the full application of the guiding principles of the United Nations and international law.
100. The Heads of State or Government reaffirmed that a process of consultations, co-operation and co-ordination between the United Nations and regional arrangements or agencies, in accordance with Chapter VIII of the Charter, as well as on their mandates, scope and composition, is useful and can contribute to the maintenance of international peace and security.
101. The Heads of State or Government stated that regional arrangements on economic co-operation can contribute to development and to the growth of the world economy through, inter alia, the promotion of trade, investment and technology transfer. They stressed the need for a firm commitment to enhance economic co-operation among developing countries within the framework of an open, multilateral, equitable and non-discriminatory trading system.
102. The Heads of State or Government reiterated the continued validity of the fundamental right of all peoples to self-determination, the exercise of which, in the case of peoples under colonial or alien domination and foreign occupation, is essential to ensure the eradication of all these situations and to guarantee universal respect for human rights and fundamental freedoms. They strongly condemned ongoing brutal suppression of the legitimate aspirations for self-determination of peoples under colonial, alien domination and foreign occupation in various regions of the world.
103. The Heads of State or Government observed with satisfaction the emergence into sovereign statehood and independence of peoples once under colonial or alien domination and foreign occupation. They reaffirmed the inalienable right of peoples of non-self-governing territories to self-determination and independence in accordance with United Nations General Assembly resolution 1514 (XV) of 14 December 1960 regardless of the territory's size, geographical location, population and limited natural resources. They renewed their commitment to hasten the complete elimination of colonialism and supported the effective implementation of the Plan of Action of the Decade for the Eradication of Colonialism. In this respect, the principle of self-determination with respect to the remaining territories within the framework of the Program of Action should be implemented in accordance with the wishes of the people consistent with United Nations General Assembly resolutions and the Charter of the United Nations.
104. In the context of the implementation of United Nations General Assembly resolution 1514 (XV), the Heads of State or Government reiterated that any attempt aimed at the partial or total disruption of the national unity and the territorial integrity of a country is incompatible with the purposes and principles of the Charter of the United Nations.
105. The Heads of State or Government called for the full implementation of relevant UNESCO resolutions and decisions relating to the restitution of cultural property of peoples formerly under colonial rule and urged that payment of applicable compensation be made in conformity with United Nations General Assembly resolution 52/24 and other relevant United Nations General Assembly resolutions on the return of cultural property to their countries of origin. They also affirmed the right of Non-Aligned Countries to preserve their cultures and protect their national heritage which are the basis of the cultural identity of these countries.
106. The Heads of State or Government affirmed the right of all peoples that have been subjected to colonialism to receive fair compensation for the human and material losses they suffered as a result of colonialism. They reaffirmed the call contained in the Final Communiqué of the XIth Summit of the Non-Aligned Movement, that colonialist countries should shoulder their responsibility and pay full compensation for the economic, social and cultural consequences of their occupation of developing countries.
107. The Heads of State or Government recalled that 1998 marks the one-hundredth anniversary of the occupation of the territory of Puerto Rico by a foreign power, and reaffirmed the right of the people of Puerto Rico to self-determination and independence on the basis of resolution 1514 (XV) of the United Nations General Assembly. They took note of the resolution adopted by the United Nations Committee of 24 on 11 August 1998 and requested the Committee of 24 to actively pursue this issue. They reiterated, in the light of actions being carried out in the United States Congress with regard to Puerto Rico, that any self-determination exercise regarding the future political status of the people of Puerto Rico should be in accordance with the resolutions adopted by the United Nations.
108. The Heads of State or Government reiterated their strong support for the Committee of 24 and expressed their desire that in accordance with the UN reform process, the said body would continue to receive both the adequate human and financial resources aimed at actively pursuing its work in order to determine the interests of the peoples of non-self-governing territories regarding their future political status, for which a number of actions, such as visiting missions and regional seminars, are totally adequate and necessary. For this purpose, they once again called upon the Administering Powers to grant their full support to the activities of the Committee.
109. The Heads of State or Government reiterated their commitment to bringing a speedy
and unconditional end to colonialism in all its forms and manifestations, and in that
regard, requested the Committee of 24 to look at its own work critically, making an
assessment of the effectiveness of its activities and the areas where it can effect
improvements, considering the significance of the end of the international Decade for the
Eradication of Colonialism. They called upon Non-Aligned Countries which are members of
the Committee to devote their greatest efforts to this end.
110. The Heads of State or Government condemned the practice of recruiting, financing, training, transit, use or supporting mercenaries as a violation of the purposes and principles of the Charter of the United Nations. They reiterated their belief that mercenarism, in all its forms, constitute an obstacle to peace and the exercise of sovereignty by Non-Aligned Countries. This endanger the national security of States, especially small States, as well as the safety and stability of multi-ethnic States and impede the exercise of the right of peoples to self-determination. They therefore urged adherence to the provisions of United Nations General Assembly resolution 49/150, especially its call on States to consider the possibility of signing and ratifying the International Convention against the Recruitment, Use, Financing and Training of Mercenaries and reaffirmed United Nations General Assembly resolution 52/112 as well as resolution 1998/6 of the 54th Session of the Commission on Human Rights.
111. The Heads of State or Government expressed their concern that various resolutions and conventions of the United Nations and regional organisations relating to mercenarism have not been implemented in full. To this end, they urged all countries to implement these unconditionally.
112. The Heads of State or Government urged all States to take the necessary steps and
to exercise the utmost vigilance against the menace posed by the activities of mercenaries
and to take appropriate legislative measures to ensure that their territories and other
territories under their control, as well as their nationals are not used for the
recruitment, assembly, financing, training and transit of mercenaries for the planning of
activities designed to destabilise or overthrow the Government or threaten the territorial
integrity and political unity of sovereign States, promote secession or fight the national
liberation movements struggling against colonial or other forms of alien domination or
113. The Heads of State or Government reiterated that with the end of the Cold War, there is no justification for the maintenance of nuclear arsenals, or concepts of international security based on promoting and developing military alliances and policies of nuclear deterrence. They noted and welcomed the various international initiatives, which stress that with the end of the Cold War the opportunity now exists for the international community to pursue nuclear disarmament as a matter of the highest priority. They also noted that the present situation whereby Nuclear Weapon States insist that nuclear weapons provide unique security benefits, and yet monopolise the right to own them, is highly discriminatory, unstable and cannot be sustained. These weapons continued to represent a threat to the survival of the mankind. The Heads of State or Government recalled their principled positions on nuclear disarmament and the related issues of nuclear non-proliferation and nuclear tests. They expressed their concern at the slow pace of progress towards nuclear disarmament, which constitutes their primary disarmament objective. They noted the complexities arising from nuclear tests in South Asia, which underlined the need to work even harder to achieve their disarmament objectives, including elimination of nuclear weapons. They considered positively the commitment by the parties concerned in the region to exercise restraint, which contributes to regional security, to discontinue nuclear tests and not to transfer nuclear weapons-related material, equipment and technology. They further stressed the significance of universal adherence to the CTBT, including by all Nuclear Weapon States, and commencement of negotiations in the Conference on Disarmament on fissile materials (decision CD/1547), which, inter-alia, should accelerate the process of nuclear disarmament. They also stressed their positions against unilateral, coercive or discriminatory measures which have been applied against Non-Aligned countries. They reiterated the need for bilateral dialogue to secure peaceful solutions on all outstanding issues and the promotion of confidence and security building measures and mutual trust. They recalled that the Cartagena Summit had called for the adoption of an action plan for the elimination of nuclear weapons within a time-bound framework. They once again called upon the international community to join them in negotiating and implementing universal, non-discriminatory disarmament measures and mutually agreed confidence-building measures. They called for an international conference, preferably in 1999, with the objective of arriving at an agreement, before the end of this millennium on a phased programme for the complete elimination of nuclear weapons with a specified framework of time to eliminate all nuclear weapons, to prohibit their development, production, acquisition, testing, stockpiling, transfer, use and threat of use, and to provide for their destruction.
114. The Heads of State or Government reiterated their call on the Conference on Disarmament to establish, as the highest priority, an ad hoc committee to start in 1998 negotiations on a phased programme for the complete elimination of nuclear weapons with a specified framework of time, including a Nuclear Weapons Convention. The Conference on Disarmament shall take into consideration all relevant views and proposals, regarding this issue that have been submitted to it. They also insisted on the need to conclude a universal and legally binding multilateral agreement committing all States to the complete elimination of nuclear weapons. In this context they regretted that some Nuclear Weapons States had adopted inflexible postures which prevented the Conference on Disarmament from commencing these negotiations. They underscored the flexibility, which on the other hand has been demonstrated by the members of the Non-Aligned Movement, members of the Conference on Disarmament, in accepting the proposal to establish an ad hoc committee under item 1 of the Conference on Disarmament's agenda to negotiate a convention on the prohibition of the production of fissile material for nuclear weapons or other nuclear explosive devices. They emphasised that this flexibility should be reciprocated by others through their agreement on the establishment of an ad hoc committee on nuclear disarmament as well as during the course of the negotiations in the Conference on Disarmament on fissile materials (Decision CD/1547).
115. In this connection, the Heads of State or Government reiterated that a number of Non-Aligned Movement countries had taken collective initiatives at the United Nations General Assembly sessions to underscore the need for urgent action in the field of nuclear disarmament, as mandated by the Cartagena Summit. They recognised all of the constructive and useful proposals put forward by members of the Non-Aligned Movement in the Conference on Disarmament on the establishment of an Ad Hoc Committee on nuclear disarmament including the useful work done by Non-Aligned Movement members of the Conference on Disarmament in developing a Programme of Action for the Elimination of Nuclear Weapons within a time-bound framework. The Heads of State or Government took note of the Declaration issued on 9 June 1998 entitled - "Towards a World Free of Nuclear Weapons: Time for a New Agenda", supported and responded to by a number of States including by some members of the Non-Aligned Movement. They recognised that this Declaration, as well as all other initiatives which have consistently been proposed by the Movement and its members are contributions to the goal of the complete elimination of nuclear weapons and called upon the Nuclear Weapon States to react positively to these initiatives.
116. The Heads of State or Government expressed concern over the failure of the Nuclear Weapon States to demonstrate a genuine commitment with regard to complete nuclear disarmament, and to provide universal, unconditional, and legally binding negative security assurances to all Non-Nuclear Weapon States, and urged the Nuclear Weapon States to immediately commence and conclude without delay negotiations on these assurances.
117. The Heads of State or Government noted the establishment of an ad hoc committee on effective international arrangements to assure Non-Nuclear Weapon States against the use or the threat of use of nuclear weapons in the Conference on Disarmament to negotiate universal, unconditional and legally binding assurances to all Non-Nuclear Weapon States. In this context, they expressed their conviction that efforts for the conclusion of a universal, unconditional and legally binding instrument on security assurances to Non-Nuclear-Weapon States should be pursued as a matter of priority by the members of the Non-Aligned Movement.
118. The Heads of State or Government commend the establishment in the Conference on Disarmament of an ad hoc committee, under agenda item 1, entitled "The cessation of the nuclear arms race and nuclear disarmament", to negotiate a convention on the prohibition of the production of fissile material for nuclear weapons or other nuclear explosive devices and believe that the proposed convention must constitute a nuclear disarmament measure and not only a non-proliferation measure, and must be an integral step leading to the total elimination of nuclear weapons. The treaty should also promote international co-operation in the peaceful uses of nuclear energy and should not hinder access to nuclear technology, equipment and material for peaceful purposes by developing countries.
119. The Heads of State or Government reiterated their conviction of the validity of the unanimous conclusion of the Advisory Opinion of the International Court of Justice that "There exists an obligation to pursue in good faith and bring to a conclusion negotiations leading to nuclear disarmament in all its aspects under strict and effective international control", and recognised that the unanimous conclusion contained in the International Court of Justices' Advisory Opinion has identified existing international law obligations. In this connection, they reiterated their call upon all States to immediately fulfil that obligation by commencing multilateral negotiations leading to an early conclusion of a nuclear weapons convention prohibiting the development, production, testing, deployment, stockpiling, transfer, threat or use of threat of nuclear weapons and providing for their elimination.
120. The Heads of State or Government noted with concern that undue restrictions on exports to developing countries of material, equipment and technology, for peaceful purposes persist. They emphasised that proliferation concerns are best addressed through multilaterally negotiated, universal, comprehensive and non-discriminatory agreements. Non-proliferation control arrangements should be transparent and open to participation by all States, and should ensure that they do not impose restrictions on access to material, equipment and technology for peaceful purposes required by developing countries for their continued development. In this regard they also expressed their strong rejection of attempts by any member State to use the International Atomic Energy Agency's (IAEA) technical co-operation programme as a tool for political purposes in violation of the IAEA's Statute.
121. Consistent with the decisions taken by the 1995 Review and Extension Conference of Parties to the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT), the Heads of State or Government of States party to the NPT called upon all States party, particularly the Nuclear Weapon States, to fulfil their commitments, particularly those related to Article VI of the Treaty. They also emphasised the need to ensure and facilitate the exercise of the inalienable right of all States to develop, produce and use nuclear energy for peaceful purposes without discrimination under IAEA safeguards. Undertakings to facilitate participation in the fullest possible exchange of equipment, material and scientific and technological information for the peaceful uses of nuclear energy should be fully implemented.
122. The Heads of State or Government of States party to the NPT took note with regret at the outcome of the deliberations of the Second Preparatory Committee held in Geneva from 27 April to 8 May, 1998. They further regretted that the Committee could not achieve a substantive result due to the insistence of one delegation to support the nuclear policies of a non-party to the NPT. They called upon the Preparatory Committees up to and including the 2000 Review Conference of the NPT to engage immediately, in good faith, in substantive work for the speedy and meaningful implementation of the obligations under the Treaty and the commitments in the 1995 Principles and Objectives document, and the resolution on Middle East. In this respect they further called upon the Preparatory Committee to make specific time available at its future sessions to deliberate on the practical steps for systematic and progressive efforts to eliminate nuclear weapons and for the 2000 NPT Review Conference to establish a subsidiary body to its Main Committee I to deliberate on the practical steps for systematic and progressive efforts to eliminate nuclear weapons. The Heads of State or Government parties to the NPT, called for the establishment of a subsidiary body to its Main Committee I to consider and recommend proposals on the implementation of the resolution on the Middle East adopted by the 1995 Review and Extension Conference of the NPT.
123. The Heads of State or Government Parties to the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons also called for the creation of an open-ended standing committee which would work intersessionally, to follow up recommendations concerning the implementation of the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons which would be agreed to at the Treaty's 2000 Review Conference.
124. The Heads of State or Government of State signatory to the Comprehensive Nuclear Test-Ban Treaty expressed their satisfaction that 150 States have signed the Treaty and 20 States have ratified it thus far. They further expressed their general satisfaction at the progress of establishing the international verification system thusfar. They agreed that if the objectives of the Treaty were to be fully realised, the continued commitment of all State signatories, especially the Nuclear Weapon States, to nuclear disarmament would be essential.
125. The Heads of State or Government reaffirmed the inviolability of peaceful nuclear activities and that any attack or threat of attack against peaceful nuclear facilities - operational or under construction - poses a great danger to human beings and the environment, and constitutes a grave violation of international law, principles and purposes of the United Nations Charter and regulations of the International Atomic Energy Agency. They recognised the need for a comprehensive multilaterally negotiated instrument, prohibiting attacks, or threat of attacks on nuclear facilities devoted to peaceful uses of nuclear energy.
126. The Heads of State or Government of the States party to the Chemical Weapons Convention welcomed the increasing number of ratifications of the Convention and invited all States who have still not ratified it to do so as soon as possible with the view to its universality. They also underlined the urgency of satisfactorily resolving the unresolved issues in the framework of the Organisation of the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (OPCW) with a view to paving the ground for the effective, full and non-discriminatory implementation of the Convention. In this context, they reiterated their call on the developed countries to promote international co-operation through the transfer of technology, material and equipment for peaceful purposes in the chemical field and the removal of all and any discriminatory restrictions that are contrary to the letter and spirit of the Convention.
127. The Heads of State or Government of the States party to the Chemical Weapons Convention, while stressing the importance of the full implementation of the Convention, and in this context, the provisions of Article X on Assistance, expressed their concern at the small number of responses received from the States parties to the Voluntary Fund on Assistance established by the OPCW and called upon all States parties to the Convention that had not yet acted in accordance with Article X, to reply to the OPCW and contribute to redress this situation.
128. While asserting that the Biological and Toxin Weapons Convention inherently precludes the use of biological weapons, the Heads of State or Government reiterated the decision by the BWC Review Conference that the use by the States parties, in any way and under any circumstances, of microbial or other biological agents or toxins, that is not consistent with prophylactic, protective or other peaceful purposes, is effectively a violation of Article I of the Convention. In this connection they noted that the Islamic Republic of Iran has formally presented a proposal to amend Article I of the Convention to include the prohibition of use of biological weapons and urged an early reply from the States parties to the inquiries by the depositories on this proposal. They noted the progress achieved so far in negotiating a Protocol to strengthen the BWC and reaffirmed the decision of the Fourth Review Conference urging the conclusion of the negotiations by the Ad Hoc group as soon as possible before the commencement of the Fifth Review Conference and for it to submit its report, which shall be adopted by consensus, to the States parties, to be considered at a Special Conference. Therefore, artificial deadlines should be avoided. They also expressed their concern at any attempts to reduce the scope and importance of issues related to Article X of the Convention. Ensured access for peaceful purposes to the relevant materials, equipment and technology is essential to safeguard the economic interests of developing countries. Substantive progress in strengthening the application and full operationalisation of Article X is thus crucial for the conclusion of a universally acceptable and legally binding instrument designed to strengthen the Convention.
129. The Heads of State or Government expressed particular concern over the illicit transfer and circulation of small arms and light weapons and their accumulation and proliferation in many countries, which constituted a serious threat to the population and to the national and regional security and were a factor contributing to the destabilisation of States. They urged States to take steps to deal effectively, through administrative and legislative means, with the increasing problem of illicit transfer of small arms and light weapons which exacerbate tensions leading to strife, conflict and terrorism, and impact negatively on the socio-economic development of affected countries. In this regard, they welcomed the adoption of guidelines in 1996 for international arm transfers in the context of General Assembly resolution 46/36H of 6 September 1991 by the United Nations Disarmament Commission. Moreover, they welcomed the initiative by His Excellency Alpha Oumar Konare, President of the Republic of Mali, on the establishment of a moratorium on the production, transfer and illicit traffic of light arms in West Africa, adopted by member States of ECOWAS within the framework of on-going discussions and referring to the creation of a mechanism to prevent, handle and rule on conflicts in the sub-region. They also welcomed the decision adopted by the 34th Summit of the Heads of State and Government of the Organisation of African Unity (OAU) regarding the problem of small arms and light weapons in Africa.
130. The Heads of State or Government recognised that there is also a significant imbalance in the production, possession and trade in conventional weapons between the industrialised and the Non-Aligned Countries and they called for a significant reduction in the production, possession and trade of conventional weapons by the States with the largest arsenals with a view to enhancing international and regional peace and security.
131. The Heads of State or Government encouraged States, taking into account the legitimate requirement of States for self-defence and the specific characteristics of each region, to consider appropriate initiatives at international, regional and national levels to promote transparency in all types of armaments as an important element for building confidence and security. They also stressed that the concept of transparency should encompass both conventional weapons and weapons of mass destruction, in particular, nuclear weapons.
132. The Heads of State or Government called on States to become parties to the Convention on Prohibitions or Restrictions on the Use of Certain Conventional Weapons Which May be Deemed to be Excessively Injurious or to Have Indiscriminate Effects (CCW) and the Protocols thereto, and expressed their satisfaction on the entry into force of its Protocol IV on Blinding Laser Weapons on 30 July 1998 as well as the announcement by the UN Secretary-General that the Protocol II, as amended, on Mines, Booby-Traps and other Devices of the CCW would enter into force on 3 December 1998.
133. The Heads of State or Government called upon the international community to provide the necessary assistance to landmine clearance operations as well as to the rehabilitation of the victims and their social and economic reintegration in the landmine affected countries. They further called for international assistance to ensure full access of affected countries to material equipment, technology and financial resources for mine clearance. They also called for continued humanitarian assistance for victims of landmines.
134. The Heads of State and Government deplored the use, in contravention of international humanitarian law, of anti-personnel mines in conflict situations aimed at terrorising civilians, denying them access to farmland, causing famine and forcing them to flee their homes eventually leading to de-population and preventing the return of civilians to their place of original residence.
135. The Heads of State or Government expressed concern about the residue of the Second World War, particularly in the form of landmines which cause human and material damage and obstruct development plans in some Non-Aligned Countries. They called on the States responsible for laying the mines outside their territories to assume responsibility for the landmines, to cooperate with the affected countries, to provide the necessary information, maps and technical assistance for their clearance, to contribute towards defrayal of the costs of clearance and provide compensation for any ensuing losses.
136. The Heads of State or Government considered the establishment of nuclear-weapon free zones (NWFZ's) as a positive step towards attaining the objective of global nuclear disarmament. They urged States to conclude agreements with a view to creating nuclear-weapon-free zones in regions where they do not exist, in accordance with the provisions of the Final Document of the Special Session of the General Assembly Devoted to Disarmament (SSOD-I). In this context, they welcomed the establishment of nuclear-weapon-free zones established by the Treaties of Tlatelolco, Rarotonga, Bangkok and Pelindaba. The Heads of State or Government considered the question of the establishment of nuclear-weapon-free zones in other parts of the world and agreed that this should be on the basis of arrangements freely arrived at among the States of the region concerned and in conformity with the provisions of the Final Document of SSOD-I. They concurred that in the context of nuclear-weapon-free zones, it is essential that Nuclear Weapon States should provide unconditional assurances against the use or threat of use of nuclear weapons to all States of the zone.
137. The Heads of State or Government welcomed and supported Mongolia's policy to institutionalise its single State nuclear weapon-free status.
138. The Heads of State or Government reiterated their support for the establishment in the Middle East of a zone free of all weapons of mass destruction. To this end, they reaffirmed the need for the speedy establishment of a nuclear-weapon free zone in the Middle East in accordance with Security Council resolutions 487 (1981) and 687 (1991) and the relevant General Assembly resolutions adopted by consensus. They called upon all parties concerned to take urgent and practical steps towards the establishment of such a zone and, pending its establishment, they called on Israel, the only country in the region that has not joined the NPT nor declared its intention to do so, to renounce possession of nuclear weapons, to accede to the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT) without delay, and to place promptly all its nuclear facilities under IAEA full-scope safeguards. They expressed great concern over the acquisition of nuclear capability by Israel which poses a serious and continuing threat to the security of neighbouring and other States and they condemned Israel for continuing to develop and stockpile nuclear arsenals. They are of the view that stability cannot be achieved in a region where massive imbalances in military capabilities are maintained particularly through the possession of nuclear weapons which allow one party to threaten its neighbours and the region. They further welcomed the initiative by H.E. Mohammed Hosni Mubarak, President of the Arab Republic of Egypt, on the establishment of a zone free from weapons of mass destruction in the Middle East. They stressed that necessary steps should be taken in different international fora for the establishment of this zone. They also called for the total and complete prohibition of the transfer of all nuclear-related equipment, information, material and facilities, resources or devices and the extension of assistance in the nuclear related scientific or technological fields to Israel.
139. The Heads of State or Government welcomed the initiative by H E. Mohammed Hosni Mubarak, President of the Arab Republic of Egypt, in June 1998, to achieve a world free from all weapons of mass destruction, in particular nuclear weapons and to convene as soon as possible an international conference to consider this issue.
140. The Heads of State or Government expressed their concern over the Israeli-Turkish military alliance as well as the naval manoeuvres carried out in the eastern part of the Mediterranean and the dangers that such manoeuvres pose to the security of the region.
141. The Heads of State or Government stated that in order to enhance international security and stability, all States parties to non-proliferation, arms limitations and disarmament treaties should comply with and implement all provisions of such treaties. They emphasised that questions of non-compliance by States Parties should be resolved in a manner consistent with such treaties. They further emphasised that any deviation from the role envisaged for the Security Council under the United Nations Charter or in certain circumstances under relevant provisions of multilateral treaties on non-proliferation, arms limitation and disarmament would undermine the provisions of these treaties and conventions, including the inherent mechanisms for securing redress of violations of their provisions. Such deviations would also call into question the value of painstaking multilateral negotiations on disarmament and arms control treaties in the Conference on Disarmament. They underlined that circumventing or undermining the provisions of existing treaties will seriously prejudice the role of the Conference. In this context, they also underlined that they were opposed to the assumption of a role by the United Nations Security Council inconsistent with the United Nations Charter.
142. The Heads of State or Government reaffirmed that global and regional approaches to disarmament are complementary and could be pursued simultaneously. They urged States in various regions of the world to negotiate agreements to promote greater balance in conventional armaments and restraint in the production and acquisition of conventional arms and, where necessary, for their progressive and balanced reduction, with a view to enhancing international and regional peace and security. They stressed that the peaceful resolution of regional and inter-State disputes is essential for the creation of conditions which would enable States to divert their resources from armaments to economic growth and development. Regional disarmament initiatives, to be practical, needed to take into account the special characteristics of each region and enhance the security of every State of the region concerned. The question of the accumulation of conventional weapons beyond the legitimate requirements of the States for self-defence should also be addressed, taking into account the special characteristics of each region.
143. The Heads of State or Government took note of the relevant paragraphs of the United Nations General Assembly resolutions 52/12A & B on international peace, security and disarmament, and insisted on the need that its implementation respects fully the principles of sovereignty, territorial integrity and non-intervention in the internal affairs of States.
144. The Heads of State or Government continued to stress their hope that the decision to re-establish at the United Nations Secretariat, the Department on Disarmament, headed by an Under Secretary-General from a Non-Aligned Country should contribute to greater disarmament efforts towards achieving general and complete disarmament in conformity with priorities set out in SSOD I and relevant provisions of General Assembly resolution 52/220.
145. The Heads of State or Government expressed once again their support for the convening of the Fourth Special Session of the United Nations General Assembly devoted to Disarmament. They welcomed the adoption by the General Assembly, by consensus, of the resolution on the Convening of the IV Special Session of the General Assembly Devoted to Disarmament. They took note of the deliberations on the matter held by the United Nations Disarmament Commission and directed the Co-ordinating Bureau to entrust the Non-Aligned Movement Working Group on Disarmament with the task of pursuing further the holding of the Fourth Special Session and the related co-ordination during the preparatory process. In this context, they reaffirmed the need to continue to press for further steps leading to its convening with the participation of all Member States of the United Nations as well as the need for SSOD IV to review and assess the implementation of SSOD I.
146. The Heads of State or Government welcomed the decision adopted by the General Assembly on maintaining and revitalising the three Regional Centres for Peace and Disarmament in Nepal, Peru and Togo.
147. The Heads of State or Government expressed their satisfaction with the work of the Non-Aligned Working Group on Disarmament under the co-ordination of Indonesia and encouraged delegations to continue their active work in this regard.
148. The Heads of State or Government reaffirmed the validity of the objectives of the Declaration of the Indian Ocean as a Zone of Peace. They reaffirmed the importance of international co-operation to ensure peace, security and stability in the Indian Ocean region. They noted that greater efforts and more time were required to facilitate a focused discussion on practical measures to ensure conditions of peace, security and stability in the region. They also noted that in the light of United Nations General Assembly resolution 52/44, the Chairperson of the Ad-Hoc Committee on the Indian Ocean will continue his informal consultations on the future work of the Committee.
149. The Heads of State or Government welcomed with satisfaction the adoption by the General Assembly of the Declaration on Measures to Eliminate International Terrorism (United Nations General Assembly resolution 49/60) and the Convention for the Suppression of Terrorist Bombings adopted at the 52nd Session of the UN General Assembly and urged that they be implemented. They reiterated their condemnation of all acts, methods and practices of terrorism, as they have adverse consequences, inter alia, on the economic and social development of States. They declared that terrorism also affect the stability of nations and the very basis of societies, especially pluralistic societies. They also called for the urgent conclusion and the effective implementation of a comprehensive international convention for combating terrorism.
150. The Heads of State or Government further welcomed the recent adoption by the Members of the League of Arab States in Cairo of the Convention on Combating Terrorism as well as the Teheran OIC Summit Resolution to conclude an OIC Convention on Combating International Terrorism and the strengthened efforts therein.
151. The Heads of State or Government further urged all States to cooperate to enhance international co-operation in the fight against terrorism, wherever, by whoever and against whomever it occurred, at the national, regional and international levels, and to observe and implement the relevant international and bilateral instruments, taking into account the Final Document of the United Nations Conference on the Prevention of Crime held in Cairo in 1995.
152. The Heads of State or Government affirmed that criminal acts intended or calculated to provoke a state of terror in the general public, a group of persons or particular persons for whatever purposes are, in any circumstance, unjustifiable, whatever the considerations or factors that may be invoked to justify them.
153. The Heads of State or Government reaffirmed that all States are under the obligation pursuant to the purposes and principles and other provisions of the Charter of the United Nations and other relevant international instruments, codes of conduct and other rules of international law to refrain from organising, assisting or participating in terrorist acts in the territories of other States, or acquiescing in or encouraging activities within the territories directed towards the commission of such acts, including allowing the use of national territories and territories under their jurisdiction for planning and training for that purpose, and/or the financing of terrorist activities. They solemnly reaffirmed their unequivocal condemnation of any political, diplomatic, moral or material support to terrorism.
154. The Heads of State or Government reaffirmed the Movement's principled position under the international law on the legitimacy of struggle of peoples under colonial or alien domination and foreign occupation for national liberation and self-determination which did not constitute terrorism.
155. The Heads of State or Government called once again for the endorsement in principle of the call for the definition of terrorism to differentiate it from the legitimate struggle of peoples under colonial or alien domination and foreign occupation, for self-determination and national liberation.
156. The Heads of State or Government stressed the need to combat terrorism in all its forms and manifestations regardless of race, religion or nationality of the victims or perpetrators of terrorism.
157. The Heads of State or Government also emphasised that the taking of hostages, wherever and by whoever committed, constitute a serious obstacle to the full enjoyment of all human rights and is, under any circumstances, unjustifiable. They therefore called on States to take all necessary measures to prevent, combat and punish acts of hostage taking, including strengthening international co-operation in this field.
158. The Heads of State or Government condemned terrorist attacks in fellow Non-Aligned Movement countries and other countries. They welcomed the adoption of Security Council resolution 1189/1998 on 13 August 1998 which strongly condemned the terrorist bomb attacks in Nairobi, Kenya and Dar-es-Salaam, Tanzania on 7 August 1998 that claimed hundreds of innocent lives, injured thousands of people and caused massive destruction to property.
159. The Heads of State or Government emphasised that international co-operation to combat terrorism should be conducted in conformity with the principles of the United Nations Charter, international law and relevant international conventions, and expressed their opposition to selective and unilateral actions in violation of principles and purposes of the United Nations Charter. In this context, they called upon the competent United Nations Organs to promote ways and means to strengthen co-operation, including the international legal regime for combating international terrorism.
160. The Heads of State or Government decided further to co-ordinate their efforts in the competent United Nations Organs to take appropriate decisions, consistent with the Charter, to fight and eradicate terrorism in all its forms and manifestations.
161. In light of all these considerations and the previous initiatives adopted by the Non-Aligned Movement, the Heads of State or Government called for an International Summit Conference under the auspices of the United Nations to formulate a joint organised response of the international community to terrorism in all its forms and manifestations.
162. The Heads of State or Government recalled paragraph 11 of the Final Document of the XII Non-Aligned Movement Ministerial Meeting and directed that the Movement should promote jointly its collective position on terrorism.
163. The Heads of State or Government expressed their satisfaction with the revitalisation of the Non-Aligned Working Group on legal issues at the UN Headquarters in New York, chaired by Zimbabwe, which should contribute to upgrade the work and level of co-ordination of the Non-Aligned delegations on these important issues.
164. The Heads of State or Government underlined that with the conclusion of the Cold War, many new areas of concern have emerged which warrant a renewal of the commitment of the international community to uphold and defend the principles of the United Nations Charter and international law as well as a fuller utilisation of the mechanism and means for the peaceful settlement of disputes, as envisaged in the United Nations Charter.
165. The Heads of State or Government agreed that peace and harmony among nations and peoples require States to respect and promote the rule of law. For this reason, they committed themselves to conduct their external affairs based upon the obligations of international law. They agreed that only an international society governed by law could assure peace and security for all its members.
166. The Heads of State or Government reaffirmed their support for the United Nations Decade of International Law, which was proposed by the Movement in June 1989. They reaffirmed their support for General Assembly resolution 52/154 on action to be taken dedicated to the 1999 Centennial of the First International Peace Conference and to the closing of the United Nations Decade of International Law. They reaffirmed the importance of the Programme of Action for the Centennial of the First International Peace Conference, including the meetings being organised by the "Friends of 1999" at the Peace Palace in the Hague, in St Petersburg and in Geneva. They called upon these meetings to support the historic and progressive positions of the Movement on the issues relating to international law, disarmament, prevention of conflicts, peaceful settlement of disputes and the maintenance of international peace and security. They stressed their hope that all Governments and relevant international organisations will support the Programme of Action which calls for the presentation of the results of the umbrella of meetings of the Centennial of the First International Peace Conference to the 54th Session of the General Assembly.
167. The Heads of State or Government stressed that further progress is necessary to achieve full respect for international law and the International Court of Justice and, inter alia, for promoting the peaceful settlement of disputes and a system of international criminal justice with respect to crimes against humanity as well as other international offences. The Charter refers to the International Court of Justice as the Organisation's principal judicial organ. The Security Council should make greater use of the World Court as a source of advisory opinions, and in controversial instances, use the World Court as a source of interpreting relevant international law and consider decisions to review by the World Court.
168. The Heads of State or Government took note of the adoption of the Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court. They emphasised the need to take all possible measures to ensure the coming into operation of the International Criminal Court without undue delay and to make the necessary arrangements for the commencement of its functions. The Heads of State or Government also emphasised the need to begin work on practical arrangements for the establishment and coming into operation of the Court. In this regard, the Heads of State or Government encouraged Member States to sign and ratify the Statute of the Court at the earliest possible time. They also called for the early establishment of the Preparatory Commission by the General Assembly of the United Nations to enable the commission to begin its work at an early date in 1999.
169. The Heads of State or Government encouraged the active participation of the members of the Non-Aligned Movement in the work of the Preparatory Commission and re-emphasised the need for co-ordination among Member Countries during the Preparatory Commission, in order to harmonise, as far as is possible, the positions of the Members of the Movement inspired by the Non-Aligned Movement's values and principles.
170. The Heads of State or Government called on all States to cooperate with the International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda and to apprehend and return for trial those who committed the crime of genocide in Rwanda to the country where the crime was committed. They also expressed appreciation to the countries who had already done so.
171. The Heads of State or Government also stressed the importance of co-operation and compliance with the International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia, and reiterated that individual responsibility for the perpetration of crimes against humanity and other serious violations of humanitarian law should be established.
172. The Heads of State or Government stressed their serious concern on the intention of a group of States to unilaterally re-interpret or re-draft the existing legal instruments in accordance with their own views and interests. They emphasised that the integrity of legal instruments adopted by Member States must be maintained. They also expressed their deep concern at the most recent experiences in the elections of members of several Treaty Bodies, which resulted in a loss of seats of experts from Non-Aligned Countries, which resulted in an unbalanced representation of all regions at these bodies. They called upon the Non-Aligned Countries that are Parties of the relevant legal treaties to work together in order to redress this anomaly, and underline the need for a more active solidarity and unity among the Non-Aligned countries by supporting the candidatures of experts from the Non-Aligned Countries.
173. The Heads of State or Government condemned the continued unilateral application, by certain powers, of coercive economic and other measures, including the enactment of extra-territorial laws, against a number of developing countries, with a view to preventing these countries from exercising their right to decide, by their own free will, their own political, economic and social systems. They called on all countries not to recognise the unilateral extra-territorial laws enacted by certain countries which impose sanctions on other States and foreign companies and individuals. They reaffirmed that such legislation contradict norms of international law and run counter to the principles and purposes of the United Nations.
174. The Heads of State or Government called on all States to refrain from adopting or implementing extra-territorial or unilateral measures of coercion as means of exerting pressure on Non-Aligned and other developing countries. They noted that measures such as Helms-Burton, D'Amato-Kennedy Acts and other laws recently enacted related to other issues, constitute violations of international law and the Charter of the United Nations, and called on the international community to take effective action in order to arrest this trend.
175. The Heads of State or Government rejected all attempts to introduce new concepts of international law geared at internationalising the essential elements contained in extra-territorial laws through multilateral agreements.
176. The Heads of State or Government agreed that Member States should effectively intensify their efforts in the 53rd UN General Assembly Session to negotiate an international instrument ensuring the inviolability of their territories from outer space, and to promote an internal mechanism within the United Nations for the exchange of information collected by means of modern space technology, taking into account the conclusions and recommendations of the report of the Government Group of Experts on confidence-building measures in outer space, submitted to the 46th Session of the United Nations General Assembly.
177. The Heads of State or Government reaffirmed their rejection of evaluations, certifications and other coercive unilateral measures as a means of exerting pressure on Non-Aligned Countries and other developing countries. In this context they reiterated their view that coercive unilateral measures and legislation are contrary to international law, the United Nations Charter and the norms and principles governing peaceful relations among states and furthermore, they also rejected the present trend geared at their strengthening and expansion through the Bretton Woods institutions. They expressed, once again, their concern over the extraterritorial nature of those measures which, in addition, threaten the sovereignty of States. They called upon States applying unilateral coercive measures to put an immediate end to those measures.
178. The Heads of State or Government called on the international community, including the Non-Aligned Movement Member Countries, to redouble their efforts to combat corruption and organised crime and encouraged Member Countries to further enhance international co-operation in this regard.
179. The Heads of State or Government, recalling the Ten Bandung Principles, which constitute the foundations of the Movement, expressed their deep concern over the air attack carried out by the United States Government against the El-Shifa Pharmaceutical Plant in the Sudan on 20 August 1998, and considered this as a serious violation of the principles of international law and the United Nations Charter and contrary to the principles of peaceful settlement of disputes as well as a serious threat to the sovereignty and territorial integrity of the Sudan and the regional stability and international peace and security. They further considered this attack as a unilateral and unwarranted act. The Heads of State or Government condemned this act of aggression and the continuing threats made by the United States Government against the Sudan and urged the US Government to refrain from such unilateral acts. They further expressed support to the Sudan in its legitimate demands for full compensation for economic and material losses resulting from the attack.
180. The Heads of State or Government noted with satisfaction that the International Seabed Authority had now begun substantive consideration of the Draft Mining Code for polymetallic nodules in the area and that the International Tribunal for the Law of the Sea had received its first two cases. They noted further that the Commission on the Limits of the Continental Shelf was now fully operational. In this regard, they urged all States party to fully support the institutions created by the Convention. The Heads of State or Government once again urged all countries, and especially the developed countries that have not yet done so, to ratify the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea, the Agreement relating to the Implementation of Part XI of the Convention and the Agreement for the Implementation of the Provisions of the Convention relating to the Conservation and Management of Straddling Fish Stocks and the Highly Migratory Fish Stocks at the earliest. They reaffirmed that the Convention and the Agreement represent significant achievements by the international community through multilateral efforts in creating a legal order for the seas and oceans which would, inter alia, facilitate international communications, promote the peaceful uses of the seas and oceans, the equitable and efficient utilisation of their resources, the conservation of their living resources, and the study, protection and preservation of the marine environment.
181. The Heads of State or Government emphasised the need for a renewal of commitment by the international community to uphold and defend the principles of the United Nations Charter and international law as well as the means envisaged in the United Nations Charter for the pacific settlement of disputes. The role of the Movement in promoting a just international order would largely depend on its inner strength, unity and cohesion. It is therefore incumbent on all Member Countries to work earnestly towards promoting the solidarity and unity of the Movement.
182. The Heads of State or Government recalled the decisions of the Cartagena Summit to mandate the Co-ordinating Bureau to study further the question of a mechanism for peaceful settlement of disputes between Member Countries, including proposals made and positions expressed at the Summit and to report to the Committee on Methodology. They noted that this study has yet to be submitted.
183. The Heads of State or Government welcomed the adoption in the last session of the United Nations General Assembly resolution (52/13) on the Culture of Peace. The Heads of State or Government called for the promotion of a culture of peace based on the principles established in the Charter of the UN and on respect for human rights, democracy and tolerance, the promotion of development, education for peace, rejection of racism, racial discrimination, xenophobia, and foreign occupation, the free flow of information and the wider participation of women as an integral approach to preventing violence and conflicts and efforts aimed at the creation of conditions for peace and its consolidation. The Heads of State or Government also welcomed that the Secretary-General is submitting a consolidated report containing a draft declaration and programme of action on the culture of peace to the General Assembly at its forthcoming session. In this context, the Heads of State or Government welcomed the proclamation of the year 2000 as the International Year for the Culture of Peace and the period 2001-2010 as the International Decade for the Culture of Peace and Non-Violence for the Children of the World.