Basic Documents: Final Document
Chapter I: Global Issues
2. The Heads of State or Government gathered in the midst of a unique and momentous time. While the consequences of the end of the Cold War have begun to be observed in their true dimension in a number of situations and the world economy moves along the path of the new dynamic of globalization, expectations of humanity to attain a new, just and equitable international system based on respect, justice and equity among nations do not seem close to being realized.
3. Wealth and trade have grown in an accelerated fashion in a number of nations, life expectancy and access to primary education have increased and the average rate of infant mortality has been noticeably reduced in many countries. Nevertheless, poverty and hunger have reached dramatic magnitudes in many Non-Aligned and other developing countries, creating one of the greatest paradoxes of our time. More than 500 million people suffer from hunger and many die as a result of it. Unemployment has grown in an accelerated fashion. The planet and its inhabitants are the victims of the inexorable deterioration of the environment and of unsustainable patterns of consumption in some industrialized countries.
4. Even when the spectre of a nuclear holocaust seems more remote than in the recent past and several countries have resolved to reduce their military budgets in order to devote such resources to meet the social and economic development requirements of their people, great powers continue to endanger the future of human kind through the unjustified stockpiling and development of nuclear weapons and other weapons of mass destruction and a rampant traffic in armaments continues to put in jeopardy the security and stability of vast regions of the world.
5. While noting with satisfaction that a number of conflicts affecting the stability of countries in Africa, Asia and Latin America and the Caribbean have been settled through agreements of tremendous historical significance, having important repercussions on the regional and world stages, and that democracy and democratic institutions have gained in strength and become more participatory, the Heads of State or Government expressed their serious concern about the exacerbation of existing conflicts and disputed and the emergency of new conflicts, as well as the reappearance of old ethnic, religious, economic and social rivalries that were believed overcome. Meanwhile, they noted that the breakup of one of the superpowers has led to the disappearance of the balance of power and to a latent instability worldwide. They emphasized that the world today is still far from being a peaceful, just and secure place. Simmering disputes, violent conflicts, aggression and foreign occupation, interference in the internal affairs of States, policies of hegemony and domination, ethnic strife, religious intolerance, xenophobia, new forms of racism and narrowly conceived nationalism are, inter alia, major and dangerous obstacles to harmonious coexistence among States and peoples and have even led to the disintegration of States and societies. They also noted with revulsion massive violations of human rights and humanitarian law, including the perpetration of acts of genocide and crimes against humanity in various regions of the world.
6. In Latin America and the Caribbean, political and economic developments give momentum to a consolidation of peace, to greater democracy and economic progress. The region is moving firmly towards cooperation. Long-standing conflicts in Central America have been successfully settled and the consolidation of peace proceeds steadily; in Haiti, for the first time after more than a century and a half of independence life, a democratically elected leader is in power. In Africa events have taken place which would have seemed inconceivable only some years ago. South Africa, having dismantled the abhorrent system of apartheid, established a non-racial and democratic government under President Nelson Mandela; Mozambique has opened a new chapter in its history with the holding of its first multiparty general elections in October last year, paving the way fore the consolidation of peace, stability and national reconciliation, and to embark on the process of economic development of the country; in Angola, the progress made in the implementation of the Lusaka Protocol and the deployment of UNAVEM III in accordance with resolution 976 (1995) has created a climate conducive to the attainment of a lasting peace and stability in the country; Eritrea, after a protracted and bloody liberation war, is now an independent nation whose people, despite the difficulties faced, are confidently on the path to meeting the challenges of the future. In Europe, the recent peace initiative launched in Bosnia-Herzegovina raises much hope for a final, just and equitable settlement of the conflict, the atrocities of which have marked the end of this century. Asia has witnessed positive trends towards cooperation for peace and development: in Southeast Asia, Vietnam's new membership of ASEAN is a significant step in the process of regional integration and Cambodia, after the 1993 elections, is advancing on the road to social and economic development and democracy and in Northeast Asia, the Democratic People's Republic of Korea has concluded key accords with the United States of America. In the Middle East, President Yasser Arafat has concluded historical accords with Israel on behalf of Palestine; while Syria is committed to finding a peaceful solution to the problem of the occupation of its territory by Israel on the basis of the United Nations Security Council these many positive and encouraging developments, the Non-Aligned Countries are not guaranteed that their security and development needs will be met.
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7. While a number of commitments on development have been reached in the past and more recently in a number of international conferences on development, many of these commitments remain to be fulfilled.
8. The Heads of State or Government expressed their concern over the adverse external economic environment that continues to impact negatively upon the economies of the developing countries. The experts of these countries continue to be hampered by all forms of protectionism and their development efforts remain impaired by inordinate burdens of external indebtedness and restricted and volatile short-term financial flows, which have resulted in an overall net transfer of resources to the developed countries, and by a lack of adequate access to technology. These are compounded by a secular decline in the price of commodities and the overall deteriorating terms of trade of the developing countries. From this point of view, Africa, which covers one fourth of the Earth's surface, which has considerable natural resources and which will account for one fifth of the world's population by the turn of the century, deserves further attention, given the critical economic situation in this continent, which has been particularly hard hit in many fields of economic and social development.
9. The Heads of State or Government expressed their determination to carry out necessary action for changing this situation in order that it should fulfil the interests and true aspirations and developing countries.
10. The Heads of State or Government observed that in spite of the end of the Cold War and the settlement of internal conflicts in some States, illicit trade and traffic in weapons have increased significantly. This has contributed to a rise of new areas of armed conflict and unprecedented levels, in violence by organized crime, terrorism and subversion in rural as well as urban areas. They considered that the international community should undertake a vigorous and concerted action to bring to an end the illicit circulation and traffic of small arms, and maintain its efforts aimed at the solution of conflicts in the affected regions.
11. They expressed their deep concern at the tremendous humanitarian problem caused by the presence of mines and other unexploded devices or populations of mine-infested countries and the high number of victims of mines, specially among civilian populations.
12. While underlining the importance of implementation of all Security Council resolutions and mandates of United Nations Peace-Keeping Operations, they noted with concern the increasing tendency, evident on the part of some States, to promote their national interests through decisions of the Security Council of the United Nations. They considered that efforts towards the preservation of international peace and security through Peace-Keeping Operations should strictly adhered to the purpose and principles of the UN Charter and should not lead to a new system of intervention in the internal affairs of States.
13. Some States seek to unilaterally impose their policies and cultural and social criteria on developing countries and to exercise their power and influence in international organizations and agencies. The experience of some Member States of NAM indeed shows that some powerful members of the international community continue to insist on their models and perceptions as standards for universal behaviour. Consequently, countries of the Non-Aligned Movement are increasingly the object of unilateral or multilateral interventionism in their internal affairs under various pretexts. In this context, the Heads of State or Government expressed their concern at the continuous attempts to erode the principle of sovereignty and non-interference in the internal affairs of NAM countries and the increased resistance by a number of developed countries to reaffirm those principles in international instruments and negotiations and to endorse their continuing relevance and applicability.
14. The Heads of State or Government were of the view that the collapse of the bipolar system, while raising hopes for ensuring a universal, just and durable peace that are yet to be fulfilled, could result in a worrisome and damaging unipolarity that would be conducive to further inequality and injustice and, therefore, to a more complex and disquieting world situation. They emphasized the need to work together towards the establishment of a new system of international relations characterized by an absence of want, fear and all forms of intolerance, and that is, on the contrary, based on peace, justice, equality, democracy and full respect of the principles enshrined in the United Nations Charter and international law. In this context, they reaffirmed their conviction that the Movement should continue to play an active and effective role for the attainment of that objective.
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15. These circumstances therefore compel the Movement more than ever to work towards cooperation and a sense of full partnership in the international field, for the promotion of peace and social and economic development.
16. The Heads of State or Government reaffirmed the continued validity and relevance of the principles and objectives of the independence, territorial integrity and sovereignty of States, the attainment of general and complete disarmament under effective international control, the rights of peoples under colonial or other forms of alien domination of foreign occupation to realize their rights to self-determination, equality among nations, full respect for international law, pacific settlement of disputes, the democratization of international relations, economic and social development, an equitable international economic order, the development of human resources, the protection and promotion of all human rights and fundamental freedoms, including the rights to development, and the coexistence of different systems, cultures and societies. In this context, they emphasized the need for the pursuit of their objectives through a dynamic adaptation to the new realities as well as through the articulation of appropriate strategies, initiatives and projects.
17. The Heads of State or Government emphasized that in order for the Movement to enhance its role at the international level, it must continue to work on expanding the reinforcing its ability and capacity for initiative, representation and negotiation, as well as its ethical, political and moral strength as a forum representing the interests and aspirations of the developing world. In this regard, they reaffirmed that fully respect for the founding principles of the Movement adopted in Bandung and the principles set forth in the United Nations Charter is its irrevocable political and moral commitment. They considered that the role of the Movement in the attainment of its objectives hinges upon the solidarity of its members, its unity and cohesion, founded on a culture of peace and development, and requires joint efforts to overcome areas of disagreement and resolving differences in a peaceful manner.
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18. While the end of the Cold War should have brought greater attention and concern to economic and social development issues on the part of the international community, they have not yet reached the pre-eminence that is required nor the degree of commitment necessary to resolve the serious problems faced by countries such as those of the Movement. In fact, in recent years, there has been a decline in resources made available for international development cooperation. The emergence of the market-based paradigm of development has also been accompanied by efforts to shift the entire onus for international development cooperation to the private sector. The Heads of State of Government reaffirmed the role of the State in development and in international cooperation for development.
19. Furthermore, the Heads of State or Government have witnessed the emergence of a trend in developed countries to ignore their past commitments and to marginalize development issues from international negotiations, introducing new conditionalities and eroding and distorting long-standing concepts to the detriment of Non-Aligned Countries and other developing countries.
They therefore stressed the need for the Movement ensure an active presence in international economic and commercial negotiations, with strong, concerted and common positions.
20. The international situation continues to be very fluid. The climate of uncertainty persists. The tendency to focus attention primarily on the interests and concerns of limited number of developed countries continues, while recent commitments made in some major areas of international cooperation remain unfulfilled. The interests of the developing countries continue to be marginalized. Private foreign investment tends to be concentrated in few developing countries and a few sectors, and a significant part of these flows is speculative and volatile in nature. The social and economic infrastructure in the developing countries is lagging behind, constraining growth prospects. It is imperative that this state of affairs be rectified as a matter of priority. The fundamental requirement of development must be reflected in the new priorities of international cooperation.
21. They underlined the fact that the gap between the developed and developing countries, specially the LDCs, continues to widen, and reiterated that the problems deriving from poverty and social injustices, far from being overcome, have been significantly aggravated. They expressed particular concern over the economic situation in the LDCs, the majority of which are located in Africa. They noted further that economic underdevelopment, poverty and social injustice constitute a source of frustration and a cause of new conflicts, and that stability, security, democracy and peace cannot be consolidated without rectifying the growing international inequalities. They therefore felt that there was an urgent need to regenerate the economies of the LDCs in order to achieve sustained growth and sustainable development.
22. The Heads of State or Government particularly emphasized that the high social cost of the structural adjustment and opening up of the economies of the countries of the Movement should not be borne by developing countries alone, specially the poorest sectors of their population. It is the developed countries that have derived the greatest benefits from this change in the world economy, while the alarming concentration of wealth in a few hands, a consequence of the unbridled market-economy, heralds social instability. Therefore they found it unacceptable that rich and powerful nations continue to establish unilateral conditionalities on open trade, a concept which they themselves promote, to gain advantages from the countries of the Movement, or what is even worse, to impose standards or push through stances intended to satisfy their internal political needs. They declared that to demand from the countries of the Movement the opening up of their economies while imposing restrictions and tariff obstructions on their products is a morally reprehensible conduct.
23. They pointed out that the globalization of the world economy, aided by the revolution in communications and data processing, has created new challenges and opportunities. However, this globalization process has translated itself into an increased marginalization for the majority of the developing countries.
24. While the benefits of the deepening interdependence amongst economies are clearly manifested in the developed countries, they have been fragile in the case of the developing countries as a whole. The Heads of State or Government therefore called for the implementation of measures by the international community to create a more balanced and participatory system of international economic relations in which such interdependence would benefit all nations.
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25. They called for the fostering of closer cooperation with developed countries as well as with regional and subregional economic groupings with a view to promoting a well coordinated and integrated approach to international economic relations based on equity and justice, and mutuality of interests and benefits. They further considered that South-South cooperation in all its aspects should be actively pursued by the Movement. They decided that programmes and projects on South-South cooperation should be implemented by Non-Aligned Countries in order to complement their economies and continue the path towards self-reliance.
26. They noted that integration into the world economy of countries with economies in transition has had the effect of absorbing considerable resources which previously would have been allocated to developing countries. In this regard, the expectations regarding its anticipated benefits to the Non-Aligned Countries have not been met. They expressed concern about the new priorities of the developed countries favouring the economies in transition. They stressed that the Movement should address this problem in all appropriate fora by, inter alia, reiterating the urgent need for the international community to fully implement all existing commitments on development as agreed at various international conferences and meetings on development, particularly through the provision of new and additional resources.
27. It is evident that the achievement of a sustained economic growth and the solution of social problems cannot be the result of free market functioning alone. Economic and social development constitute interdependent processes that must be mutually reinforcing. Even if free initiative and creativity are an important basis for progress, appropriate interventions may be required to mitigate the negative impact of some market forces in certain cases and achieve conditions of economic and social stability. Therefore, as a development models cannot be imposed, they encouraged alternative approaches to development consistent with national needs and priorities of each Non-Aligned country.
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28. On the occasion of the commemoration of its fortieth anniversary, the Heads of State or Government hailed the historical Conference of Bandung which gave birth to the principles of Non-Alignment and the peaceful coexistence among States having different economic or political systems. They reiterated that the Declaration issued on that memorable occasion constituted a milestone in the emergency of an independent current of though, an expression of the legitimate longings for freedom and progress of the peoples and of the aspirations of the developing countries.
29. They reiterated that the Movement's role in promoting a just international order would depend largely on its inner strength, unity and cohesion. It is, therefore, incumbent on all Member States to work earnestly towards promoting solidarity and unity of the Movement. This would require sincere efforts to remove areas of disagreements between Member States and resolve disputes among themselves peacefully.
30. The Heads of State or Government underlined the historic role and constructive contribution of the Movement to the promotion of a peaceful world and cooperative relations among States. Furthermore, the core of its philosophy has endured and its underlying principles remain unchanged. There is no disputing the continued validity of its principles and objectives which include, inter alia, the safeguarding of the independence, sovereignty and territorial integrity of States, exercise of self-determination and sovereignty of the Non-Aligned other developing countries, achievement of disarmament, especially nuclear disarmament, end to colonialism and all forms of subjugation, eradication of racism and all forms of racial discrimination, peaceful co-existence among States, democratization of inter-State relations, peaceful settlement of regional conflict, attainment of development goals of all developing countries and protection of human rights, especially their social economic dimensions. They lauded its meaningful contribution to the struggle to achieve general disarmament and a ban on the production, testing and use of weapons of mass destruction. They recognized its visionary contribution to the promotion of development and South-South cooperation.
31. They underlined that the resolve of the Movement's position over the last thirty-four years has sparked many of the accomplishments observed in the international field in recent periods, including the independence of many territories under colonial yoke and the expression of the felt needs of the peoples of the Non-Aligned Countries which were not even heard when they stood individually or in isolation. They considered that Non-Alignment meant and will continue to represent the collective expression of nations with common identities and needs. The Movement's role in promoting a just international order would depend largely on its inner strength, unity and cohesion. It is incumbent on all Member States to work earnestly towards promoting solidarity and unity of the Movement. This would require sincere efforts to remove means of disagreement between Member States and resolve disputes among themselves peacefully.
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32. expressed their satisfaction of the current trend of revitalization in the activities of the Non-aligned Movement, since the Jakarta Summit held in 1992, the Eleventh Ministerial Conference in Cairo in 1994, and the Ministerial Meeting of the Coordinating Bureau of the Non-Aligned Countries held in Bandung in April this year, and stressed that such trend should be maintained and encouraged in the future. In this regard, they concurred, in particular, to evolve the mechanism of enhancement of the role of the Non-Aligned Movement in conformity with changes in the international situation so that the Movement, as spokesman representing the interests of the Non-Aligned Movement in conformity with changes in the international situation so that the Movement, as spokesman representing the interests of the Non-Aligned and other developing countries, will be able to respond effectively and expeditiously to the current challenges on the basis of positions agreed by its Members.
33. They emphasized that the Movement should enhance its unity and cohesion, and coordinate positions of Member Countries towards the major international issues, with a view to strengthening their negotiating power vis-a-vis the developed countries. In this context, they considered that the Movement should define its characteristic of the New International Order to be based on justice, equality and democracy in international relations, and adopt a common strategy to that end. They also emphasized that it is necessary to improve the mechanism for coordination of position among members, such as existing working groups in the United Nations and specialized agencies and to promote the process of achieving the commonality of positions and interests of the Non-Aligned Countries and speaking with one voice in international negotiations.
34. They underlined the need to reactivate the Movement, and with this view, decide to commemorate the 35th Anniversary of the founding of the Non-Aligned Movement on the occasion of the meeting of the Ministers of Foreign Affairs of the Non-Aligned Movement to be held in September 1996. They instructed the Coordinating Bureau in New York with the task of carrying out consultations with a view to completing preparations for the commemoration, including deciding on the venue on its anniversary and preparation of the topics to be discussed therein.
35. They recognized that it is essential to increase inner strength for enhancing the role of the Movement. They decided to introduce a system of a rotating three years duration chairmanship of the Ministerial Committee on Methodology, which they consider would provide a new impetus to further improving the working methods and efficiency of the Movement. In this regard, they recalled early adoption of criteria for the admission of new members, observers and guests. They reaffirmed that the enhancement of the role of the Movement should be a constant process and considered that the Ministerial Committee on Methodology should continue to intensify its activities for a thorough ad extensive examination of several aspects related to the structure and modalities of the Non-Aligned Movement. They recommended that the Ministerial Committee meets early in 1996, to consider ways and means for enhancing the role of the Movement in the light of recent changes in the international situation.
36. The Heads of State or Government stressed the importance of the recommendation made by the 11th Ministerial Conference in Cairo in 1994 that the backup system, which was devised in the 10th Ministerial Conference in Accra in 1991 and adopted by the Jakarta Summit in 1992 be brought into effect.
37. The Heads of State or Government , having reviewed the international situation and having reaffirmed the importance of the principles and objectives of the Movement, decided to seek additional ways and means for collective action in order to broaden its influence and role in world affairs. A primary reason for such a need is to promote the observance of the principles of the United Nations Charter and international law as a fundamental basis for peaceful coexistence among States. They expressed appreciation for the important and active role being played by the Coordinating Bureau in New York and its Working Groups and Drafting Groups. They were also convinced that such a role should be further intensified to meet the rapidly changing needs in the international context, including the emerging of new issues that are of great concern to the Movement. The Heads of State or Government therefore entrusted the Coordinating Bureau with the task of intensifying its actions to further strengthen coordination and mutual cooperation among Non-Aligned Countries, including unified action in the United Nations and other international fora on issues of common concern. They were also of the view that when necessary, the Coordinating Bureau should convene its meetings at Ministerial level on a specific issue of major concern. they were also of the view that when necessary, the Coordinating Bureau should convene its meetings at ministerial level on a specific issue of major concern to the Movement, as has been the past practice.
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38. The Heads of State or Government recognized the importance of coordination and cooperation between the NAM and the Group of 77 in promoting the interest of the developing countries in the international fora. In this context they welcomed the adoption by the NAM and Group of 77 on the Terms of Reference of the Joint Coordinating Committee of the Non-Aligned Movement and the Group of 77 (JCC), particularly its operationalization. They also noted with appreciation the progress achieved by the JCC in pursuing the interest of developing countries as reflected in the joint submission by both the Chairman of NAM and Group of 77, in their capacity as Co-Chairman of JCC of the Message of the Chairman of the Non-Aligned Movement to the Chairman of the Group of 7 Summit in Halifax, and in the negotiations of the General Assembly resolution on the Strengthening of the United Nations system that was adopted by consensus. The fact that the developing countries now have a mechanism whereby they can forge their solidarity on various issues augurs well for the future. They therefore decided to build upon these success and entrusted the JCC to enhance its active role in accordance with its mandate as contained in the Terms of Reference of the JCC.
39. The Heads of State or Government noted with satisfaction the coordination undertaken between the Chairman of the Coordinating Bureau of the Non-Aligned Movement in New York and the Members of Non-Aligned Movement Caucus in the Security Council in addressing matters of particular importance to Members of the Movements as called for by the previous Non-Aligned Movement Summits. They therefore called for the need to continue and enhance the coordination and to explore ways and means that would facilitate further such a coordination as appropriate, including the possibility of holding consultations, on a regular basis, between the Member of the Non-Aligned Movement Caucus and Members of the Movement through the Coordinating Bureau.
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40. The Heads of State or Government reaffirmed their abiding commitment to the purposes and principles of the United Nations Charter. They reiterated their belief that the United Nations represents the most appropriate international forum for the maintenance of international peace and security and the peaceful settlement of disputes, for the achievement of freedoms and for securing the right of self-determination of peoples under colonial or other forms of alien domination, or foreign occupation, for the attainment and just and equitable economic relations and social emancipation, for the full enjoyment of all human rights and fundamental freedoms as well as for the strengthening of friendly relations and peaceful coexistence among nations. The irreplaceable role and value of the Organization as the unique multilateral framework to deal global issues is beyond contention. So are the many contributions made by the world body and its specialized agencies to the economic, social and cultural advancement of all countries and peoples.
41. The Movement, which constitutes two thirds of the United Nation membership, is determined to build upon its achievements and calls upon its Members to utilize the potential of the Organization in a much more purposeful and rational way and thereby advance their shared aspirations such as peace, common security and prosperity for all. It is at the United Nations that the Movement must assert itself as the collective and effective spokesman for the developing world.
42. They reaffirmed their conviction that the United Nations is the most important vehicle to channel the contribution of the Movement of the Non-Aligned Countries for the shaping of a new system of international relations based on justice and equity and the other guiding principles of the Non-Aligned Movement. Therefore they reiterated the determination of the Movement to play a vital role in the revitalization, restructuring and democratization of the United Nations system. In this context, they reaffirmed the role of the Non-Aligned Movement High Level Working Group for the Restructuring of the United Nations to democratize and enhance the effectiveness of the Organization in accordance with the principles and purposes of the Charter and to ensure the Movement's involvement in this important process.
43. In commemorating the Fiftieth Anniversary of the establishment of the United Nations, the Heads of State or Government emphasized that the role of the United Nations should be geared at the positive transformation of the international society, the promotion of economic and social development; the maintenance of international peace and security; the promotion of a better understanding among peoples; the ongoing process of decolonization and the universal realization of the principle of equal rights and self-determination. They highlighted the numerous and complex transformations that have occurred in the world during the second half of the present century. The United Nations has grown from 51 founding States, to 185 Member States, many of which achieved their independence in the last five decades.
44. The Heads of State or Government reiterated the need to democratize the U.N., for which the Fiftieth Anniversary should be a pivotal point. While they agreed with the need to place the Organization in tune with the need to place the Organization in tune with the new realities, they stated unequivocally that actions taken in this process should not result in the further perpetuation of existing anomalies in the United Nations and political imbalances, nor a way of escaping from faithfully respecting the general principles already spelled-out half a century ago, in particular the principles of impartiality sovereignty, national independence, territorial integrity and non-interference in the internal affairs of States, the validity of which has been fully vindicated. In this context, they also expressed their conviction that the role of Non-Aligned and other developing countries in the Organization cannot be further eroded nor their interest be pushed to the sidelines to the benefit of the foreign policies of great powers.
45. They considered that the highest priority and greatest challenge to the U.N. in the new era is the promotion of social and economic development. In this respect, they emphasized the need for restoring primacy of the United Nations role in the restructuring of international economic relations on the basis of justice and equity.
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46. They reiterated the importance of the reform and restructuring of the United Nations. In the context they reaffirmed the role of the General Assembly as the highest deliberative and decision-making organ of the U.N. system. In this regard they commended the activities of the Non-Aligned Movement High Level Working Group for the Restructuring of the United Nations in promoting a strong, concerted and common position of the Movement as well as in contributing constructively in the negotiating process which led to the adoption by consensus of relevant U.N. resolutions. They welcomed the important measures that have been adopted to revitalize the General Assembly, including the decision to continue using existing mechanisms and creating new bodies as necessary and considered that these measures should be fully implemented and further developed and refined. They reiterated, furthermore, the call so scrupulously observe the arrangements set out in the Charter regarding the respective functions of the General Assembly and the Security Council, and they underlined the need to establish more effective relations between the two organs on the basis of the necessary accountability by the Council of the General Assembly.
47. The Heads of State or Government entrusted the Coordinating Bureau in New York with the task of studying the recent reports and proposals by a number of entities, including non-governmental and other institutions, regarding the restructuring of the U.N. which have far-reaching implications for the Non-Aligned and other developing countries, with a view, inter-alia, to determine NAM's positions on the issues involved. In this context, they took note of the establishment of the High Level Working Group of the General Assembly on Strengthening the United Nations system. In this regard, while reiterating the necessity of the reform and restructuring of the U.N. system in order to increase its effectiveness and efficiency, they emphasized that the work and inputs of this working group should not weaken the developmental activities of the United Nations system and should not overlap the work of other existing working groups. In this context, they agreed that the Movement shall participate actively in the negotiating process with unified positions.
48. They emphasized that democratization of the United Nations and its bodies should be pursued in the spirit of sovereign equality of States. They appealed to the major States to accept this inevitable process in the broader interest of all humankind.
49. The Heads of State or Government welcomed the ongoing endeavours aimed at reforming and improving certain structures and procedures of the United Nations as an essential component of strengthening multilateralism with a view to ensuring equal participation, more balanced representation and better equilibrium in keeping with the principles and objectives of the United Nations. In this context, they stressed the need to democratize the United Nations to better reflect the universal nature of the Organization and fulfil the principle of sovereign equality of States. They underlined, in particular, the need for full democracy and transparency in the work of the Security Council, in view of its recent practices and performance. They expressed their determination to participate constructively in the process of revitalization and reform in the firm conviction that the United Nations is an indispensable forum to be supported and strengthened. Yet, democratization of the international political and economic institutions inherent in such a process continues to be hampered by those who seek to preserve their privileged position of power. In these endeavours, the main purpose should be to make the Organization more responsive to the changing realities and emerging challenges of peace and development in a dynamic context.
50. In view of the increasing trend on the part of some countries to exercise undue influence over the Security Council and the privileged and dominant role that the veto rights ensures for the Permanent Members of the Council, which is contrary to the aim of democratizing the United Nations, they reiterated their position adopted at the Fifth, Sixth and Tenth Summits, regarding the special privilege by Permanent Members of the Security Council to exercise the veto, and committed themselves to actively promote its curtailment with a view to its elimination. Furthermore, while welcoming the actions taken by the Council with regard to its transparency and working methods, they considered them still insufficient and urged the General Assembly to recommend to the Council further measures to ensure its full democratization.
51. They took note of the report of the open-ended working group on the question of equitable representation on and increase in the membership of the Security Council, reflecting agreement to expand the Security Council and to review its working methods and other matters related to its functioning in order to strengthen its capacity and effectiveness and enhance its representative character. As important differences continue to exist, further in-depth consideration of these issues is required. They acknowledged that the Non-Aligned Countries participated in the deliberations of the open-ended working group and expressed their determination that the Movement pursue the work of the open-ended working group in a concerted and active manner.
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51bis. They reaffirmed that both the reform and the expansion aspects of the Security Council should be considered as integral parts of a common package, taking into account the principle of sovereign equality of States and equitable geographic distribution, as well as the need for transparency, accountability and democratization in the working methods and procedures of the Security Council, including its decision-making process. They noted positively the proposal submitted by NAM to the open-ended working group on Security Council reform, encompassing the issues of membership, transparency and working methods of the Council. They emphasized that the proposal to expand the Council should be comprehensive in nature, in order to improve its credibility and thus reflect the universal character of te world organization. They considered it essential to substantially increase the proportion of members of the Council belonging to the Movement and to that end they urged that the Non-Aligned Countries should work towards increasing the representation of developing countries of Africa, Asia and Latin America and the Caribbean in the Security Council. Any attempt to exclude Non-Aligned Countries from any expansion in the membership of the Security Council would be unacceptable to the Movement. They therefore agreed on the need for a coherent and coordinated approach by the Members of the Movement.
52. They stressed the importance of enhancing the effective functioning of the Security Council by adopting specific measures aimed at improving the working relationship of the Council with the General Assembly, other organs of the United Nations and the non-members of the Security Council. They also underscored the need to operationalize Article 50 of the Charter, particularly by institutionalizing consultations envisaged under this article, as well as adopt other effective measures to enable non-members to bring to the attention of the Council members their problems and difficulties with a view to their solution.
53. While recognizing the importance acquired by informal closed meetings of the members of the Council, they reaffirmed their conviction that those informal consultations must not replace the provisions enshrined in the charter ad the provisional rules of procedure of the Council, nor restrict the necessary transparency in its work.
54. In order to meet the objective of a restructuring of the United Nations that would achieve democratization, transparency and efficiency of the Security Council as well as better valance of functions between the principal organs of the United Nations, the Heads of State or Government examined various mechanisms including the possible convening of the General Conference for the revision of the Charter foreseen in Article 109 of the Charter of the United Nations at an appropriate time.
55. They took note of the fact that the fiftieth session of the General Assembly is examining the role of the Trusteeship Council as part of the comprehensive process geared at revitalizing and rendering the United Nations more effective, in particular its principal organs.
56. They took note of the Supplement of An Agenda For Peace submitted by the Secretary General of the United Nations and of the reconvening of the Informal Working Group of the General Assembly on An Agenda For Peace. In this regard, they expressed their readiness to consider the Supplement and the proposals contained therein and to that end entrusted the Non-Aligned Movement High Level Working Group for the Restructuring of the United Nations with the task of continuing its work to achieve as common position of the Movement in the negotiating process and to ensure that the objective of strengthening the United Nations system would be pursued within the framework of an in accordance with the provisions of the Charter.
57. They reiterated that democracy within the family of nations would require the fullest consultation, participation and engagement of all States, large and small, in the work of the Organization. they further underlined that preventive diplomacy and post-conflict peace-building should be carried-out on the basis of the principles enshrined in the Charter of the United Nations.
58. They considered that the General Assembly must undertake an in-depth examination of the problems related to the restructuring of the Secretariat of the United Nations, particularly in the light of the report presented by the Secretary-General on this subject to the 49th regular session of the Assembly, contained in document A/49/336, taking into account the discussion that was generated on that matter.
59. They supported the suggestion of the Secretary General on the need for the Security Council to establish as mechanism to study, including in the context of this implementation of Article 50 of the Charter, all the aspects related to sanctions and their real impact. They concurred that the application of sanctions in accordance with the Charter has profound consequences, not only for the target countries, but for the neighbouring States and trading partners. They economic problems encountered by such States in the wake of sanctions imposed on any other State should be addressed promptly through adequate compensation. They pointed out that sanctions should be lifted as soon as their objectives are fulfilled, and any attempts to impose or extend their application for the sake of attaining certain political objectives is to be rejected. Furthermore, they considered that many critical aspects need clarification before sanctions are imposed. They affirmed that to this end, serious study should be given to ways of minimizing the possible unintended and long-term effects on the target countries and to reduce to a minimum any damage or impact on neighbouring countries or third parties. The study should consider the need for clearly defined objectives, as timetable and humanitarian considerations such as the effective on the civilian population.
60. They agreed on the importance that the United Nations, and the Security Council in particular, invest greater efforts and resources toward the pacific settlement of disputes, which would both help avert the human sufferings brought about by the deepening of international crises and channel resources from the international community into urgent economic and social needs for which adequate financing is not available today.
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61. The Heads of State or Government reaffirmed that the primary responsibility for international peace and security rests with the United Nations.
62. The Heads of State or Government recognized the importance of United Nations Peace-Keeping Operations and reaffirmed their conviction that all such operations should strictly abide by the principles and purposes enshrined in the Charter of the United Nations. They emphasized that Peace-Keeping Operations should be guided by the principles adopted in this regard at the Eleventh Ministerial Conference of NAM held in Cairo in 1994.
63. They expressed their concern for the imbalance between the associated expenses of the large number of existing Peace-Keeping Operations and resources available for development activities of the United Nations, as well as for the complexity of the functions and tasks assigned to them. They also expressed reservations at the emerging trend whereby Peace-Keeping Operations evolve into operations of a military nature which are not authorized in conformity with the provisions of the Charter. In that regard, they reiterated the need to differentiate between Peace-Keeping Operations and humanitarian assistance.
64. The Heads of State or Government highlighted the need for the urgent establishment of a uniform United Nations scale of compensation of death and disability in respect of Peace-Keeping personnel.
65. They stressed that the contribution of developing countries is an important factor for the success of Peace-Keeping Operations. It is necessary, therefore, to address the problems of delay in reimbursement of troop costs and the use of contingent owned equipment to participating countries, in particular Non-Aligned and other developing countries.
66. They noted that Peace-Keeping is an ad-hoc measure used to prevent conflict situations from escalating while ways to resolve the conflict peacefully are being pursued. In this regard, they asserted that Peace-Keeping Operations should not be a preferred method of containing conflicts, and therefore, every effort should be made to seek early resolution of conflicts.
67. The Heads of State or Government commended that valuable contributions of Members on NAM to the various U.N. Peace-Keeping Operations. they paid tribute to the sacrifices made by contingents from Non-Aligned Countries participating in the different U.N. Peace-Keeping Operations in the pursuit of peace.
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68. The Heads of State or Government expressed their concern at the financial situation of the United Nations and stressed that its fundamental cause is the failure by some developed States to pay their assessed contributions to the regular budget and Peace-Keeping Operations in full and on time. They called upon these States to fulfil their outstanding obligations without any conditions whatsoever as demonstration of their political will to honour their obligations under the Charter which apply to all Members.
69. They reiterated that the principle of the capacity to pay must remain the fundamental criterion underlying any review of the methodology of apportionment of the expenses of the Organization. They also stressed that any review of the methodology should be based on consensus and consultation and not on the basis of unilateral measures.
70. The Heads of State or Government further recalled the obligation of Member States under Article 17 of the Charter to bear the expenses of the Organization as apportioned by the General Assembly. In this context, they further stressed that major contributors should give practical effect to their commitments to the Organization and take the lead in meeting their assessed contributions in a full and timely manner on the occasion of the Fiftieth Anniversary of the United Nations.
71. In this regard the Heads of State or Government took note of the progress made by the High Level Open-Ended Working Group on the Financial Situation of the U.N. and expressed the hope that the outcome of its deliberations should enable the General Assembly to take the appropriate measures to place the Organization in a financially viable position to take up the challenges with which it is faced.
72. They also reaffirmed the view that the principles contained in the special scale of assessments established by resolution 3101 (XXVIII) for the apportionment of the expenses of Peace-Keeping Operations, should be adopted in a permanent manner. In this context, they agreed on the need that the scale for the financing of such operations should clearly reflect the special responsibilities of the Permanent Members of the Security Council, as well as the economic situation being faced by the different countries or groups of countries.
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73. While reaffirming that the primary responsibility for international peace and security rests with the United Nations, the Heads of State or Government stressed that the role of regional arrangements or agencies, in that regard, should not in any way substitute the role of the United Nations, or circumvent the full application of the guiding principles of the United Nations and international law.
74. They reaffirmed that a process of consultations, cooperation and coordination between the U.N. and regional arrangements or agencies, based on Chapter VIII of the Charter, as well as on their mandates, scope and composition, is useful and can contribute to the maintenance of international peace and security.
75. They stated that regional arrangements on economic cooperation can contribute to development and to the growth of the world economy through, inter alia, the promotion of trade, investments and technology transfer. They stressed the need for a firm commitment to enhance economic cooperation among developing countries within the framework of an open, multilateral, equitable and non-discriminatory trading system.
76. They highlighted the important role that regional arrangements and agencies, composed of Non-Aligned and other developing countries, can play in the promotion of regional peace and security, economic cooperation and economic and social development.
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77. They reiterated the continued validity of the fundamental right of all peoples to self-determination the exercise of which, in the case of peoples under colonial or alien domination and foreign occupation, is essential to guarantee universal respect for human rights and fundamental freedoms. They strongly condemned ongoing brutal suppression of the legitimate aspirations for self-determination of peoples under colonial or alien domination and foreign occupation in various regions of the world.
78. They observed with satisfaction the emergence into sovereign statehood and independence of peoples once under colonial or alien domination and foreign occupation. They reaffirmed the inalienable right of peoples of non -self-governing territories to self-determination and independence in accordance with GA resolution 1514 (XV) of 14 December 1960 regardless of the territory's size, geographical location, population and limited natural resources. They renewed their commitment to hasten the complete elimination of colonialism and supported the effective implementation of the Plan of Action of the Decade for the Eradication of Colonialism. In this respect, the principle of self-determination with respect to the remaining territories within the framework of the Programme of Action should be implemented in accordance with the wishes of the people consistent with UNGA resolutions and the Charter of the United Nations.
79. The Heads of State or Government called for the full implementation of relevant UNESCO resolutions and decisions relating to the restitution of cultural property of peoples formerly under colonial rule and urged the payment of applicable compensation.
80. In the context of the implementation of Resolution 1514 (XV), the Heads of State or Government reiterated that any attempt aimed at the partial or total disruption of the national unity and the territorial integrity of a country is incompatible with the purpose and principles of the Charter of the United Nations.
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81. Deeply concerned at the criminal activities of international mercenaries, the Heads of State or Government condemned the practices of recruiting, financing, training, transit, use of supporting mercenaries as a violation of the purposes and principles of the Charter of the United Nations. These endangered the national security of States, especially small States as well as the safety and stability of multi-ethnic States and impeded the exercise of the right of peoples of self-determination. They therefore urged adherence to the provisions of resolution 49/150 of UNGA; especially its call on States to consider the possibility of signing and ratifying the International Convention against recruitment, use, financing and training of mercenaries.
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82. Matters related to disarmament, arms limitation and control and international security have acquired a totally new dimension with the disappearance of the East-West confrontation. Nuclear deterrent scenarios of the past are no longer relevant. In the post-Cold War ear there is no justification whatsoever, if there was ever any, to maintain nuclear arsenals and much less to add new ones as a continuation of the arms race. The time has come for the entire stockpiles of these deadly weapons of mass destruction to be destroyed once and for all. The non-proliferation regime will not be successful without a clear perspective on nuclear disarmament. They called for a renunciation of strategic doctrines based upon the use of nuclear weapons and called for the adoption of an action plan for elimination of all nuclear weapons, within a time-bound framework. They reiterated their belief that general and complete disarmament under effective international control remains the ultimate objective to be achieved for which a comprehensive, non-discriminatory and balanced approach towards international security should be adopted.
83. The Heads of State or Government reaffirmed their conviction that the new world environment offers today better opportunities for dealing effectively with all the problems related to disarmament and international security and promoting a more secure world, free of weapons of mass destruction. They continued to seek general and complete disarmament under effective international control as an ultimate objective to be attained within a specific time frame through the elimination of all nuclear arsenals and all other weapons of mass destruction as well as through gradual and balanced reductions of conventional arms.
84. They called on the conference on Disarmament to establish, on a priority basis, an ad-hoc committee to commence negotiations early in 1996 on a phased programme of nuclear disarmament and for the eventual elimination of nuclear weapons within a time-bound framework, as envisaged in paragraph 50 of the final document of the first special session of the U.N. General Assembly on disarmament and to this end they decided to introduce a draft resolution at the 50th session of the UNGA.
85. They expressed their concern at the limited and slow progress achieved in the negotiations aimed at reducing, and ultimately eliminating, nuclear arsenals pursuant to the objectives of general and complete disarmament. They urged all the other Nuclear Weapon States to join the ongoing efforts of the two countries possessing the largest nuclear weapons arsenals to speed up the process for the complete elimination of this category of arms.
86. The Heads of State or Government reiterated the seriousness and importance of eliminating weapons of mass destruction, and considered the establishment of nuclear-weapon free zones as necessary first step towards attaining this objective. They urged States to conclude agreements with a view to create nuclear weapon free zones in regions where they do not exist, in accordance with the provisions of the Final Document of SSOD-1. These nuclear-weapon free zones should extend to all territories forming part of each State in such zones in line with the territorial integrity of each such State. They welcomed with satisfaction the current consolidation process of the regime established by the Tlatelolco Treaty in Latin America and the Carribean region. They also welcomed the adoption by the OAU on June 23, 1995 of the Pelindaba Treaty on the establishment of an African Nuclear-Weapon Free Zone. they urged the support of the Nuclear-Weapon States of this treaty by inter alia acceding to the protocols that concern them as well as other regional treaties to ensure their success. They further encouraged the unification of the zones already created by the Tlatelolco, Ratoronga and the Antarctic Treaties, with the zone that will be established in Africa. They welcomed the unilateral declaration by Mongolia of its territory as a nuclear weapon free zone as a commendable contribution to regional stability and confidence building.
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87. The Heads of State or Government reiterated their support for the establishment of the Middle East of a zone free of all weapons of mass destruction. To this end, the Heads of State or Government reaffirmed the need for the speedy establishment of a nuclear-weapons free zone in the Middle East in accordance with the relevant General Assembly resolutions adopted by consensus. They called upon all parties concerned to take urgent and practical steps towards the establishment of such a zone and, pending its establishment, they called on Israel to renounce possession of nuclear weapons, to accede to the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT) without delay, and to place promptly all its nuclear facilities under fullscope IAEA safeguards. They expressed great concern over the acquisition of nuclear capability by Israel which poses a serious and continuing threat to the security of neighbouring and other States and they condemned Israel for continuing to develop and stockpile nuclear arsenals. They further welcomed the initiative by H.E. Mohammed Hosni Mubarak, President of the Arab Republic of Egypt, on the establishment of a zone free from weapons of mass destruction in the Middle East. They believed that necessary steps should be carried out in different international fora for the establishment of this zone. They also called for the total and complete prohibition of the transfer of all nuclear-related equipment, information, material and facilities, resources or devices and the extension of assistance in the nuclear-related scientific and technological fields to Israel.
88. The Heads of State or Government noted with concern the growing restraint being placed on access to material, equipment and technology for peaceful uses of nuclear energy by the developed countries through imposition of ad-hoc export control regimes. These may impede the economic and social development of developing countries. They attached the greatest priority to the search for mechanisms that would ensure the transfer of technology and cooperation in the peaceful uses of nuclear energy with a view to giving effect to and strengthening the economic development policies of the Member Countries of the Movement.
89. They considered that while States continued to stockpile nuclear weapons, and the possibility of manufacturing and using such weapons existed, world tensions and the major threat to world peace would remain. In this context, they commended South Africa's decision to dismantle its nuclear weapons, to discontinue its entire nuclear-weapon program and to comply with international safeguards.
90. They firmly rejected all kinds of nuclear testing which are being carried our regardless of their serious environmental consequences and their contrary effects to peace, security and international stability. They strongly deplored the resumption and continuation of nuclear testing and called upon all the Nuclear Weapon States to act in a manner consistent with the negotiations and objectives of a comprehensive nuclear test ban treaty, and cease conducting any nuclear testing. They supported the total elimination of all nuclear testing without any exception. They welcomed the efforts to conclude negotiations on a Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty (CTBT) by 1996 and emphasized that any activity relating to further research and development on nuclear arsenals, or their production, would run contrary to the spirit of CTBT. They emphasized that the CTBT, to be meaningful in the context of a disarmament treaty must be considered an important step in the process leading to the complete elimination of all nuclear weapons within a specific time frame.
91. The Non-Aligned Countries Parties to the NPT took note that, at the time its extension was attained, the review process envisaged by the NPT every five years was not completed for the second consecutive time thus revealing major difficulties in the way of achieving universality of the Treaty. This adds to the doubts on the possibility of achieving mutually agreed priorities on nuclear disarmament issues.
92. Noting United Nations Security Council resolution 984(1995) which was adopted unanimously on April 11, 1995 as well as the declaration by the Nuclear Weapon States concerning both negative and positive security assurances, the Heads of State or Government urged further steps by the Nuclear Weapon States to assure Non-Nuclear Weapon States Party to the Treaty against the use of threat or use of nuclear weapons. These steps should take the form of an internationally legally binding instrument.
93. The Heads of State or Government to the NPT strongly deplored that the Nuclear Weapon States have not fulfilled up to now the obligations contained in Article VI of the NPT and reiterated the urgent need to achieve the total elimination of all existing nuclear weapons as a indispensable step towards general and complete disarmament under strict and efficient international control. They called for the determined pursuit by the Nuclear Weapon States of systematic and progressive efforts in this regard. They also urged the Nuclear Weapon States to end immediately the qualitative improvement, development and production of nuclear weapons.
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94. The Heads of State or Government Parties to the NPT considered that it is essential that the Nuclear Weapon States show the necessary political will to accommodate the concerns of the Non-Nuclear Weapon States and to achieve mutually acceptable basis for universal disarmament that ensures beneficial peaceful utilization of nuclear energy. Towards the end, the Non-Aligned Movement supports the establishment of Nuclear Weapons Free Zones as well as the initiatives aiming at establishing zones free of all weapons of mass destruction. Particular importance should be attached to ensuring the exercise of the inalienable right of all Parties to the NPT to develop research , production and use of nuclear energy of peaceful purposes without discrimination. Undertakings to facilitate participation in the fullest possible exchange of equipment, materials and scientific and technological information for the peaceful uses of nuclear energy should be fully implemented.
95. Consistent with the decisions adopted by the 1995 Review and Extension Conference of the Non-Proliferation Treaty, the Heads of State or Government Parties to the NPT called upon all States and in particular, the Nuclear Weapon States to wholly fulfill their commitments. Namely: a) achievement of universality of the Treaty; b) the completion of the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty before the end of 1996; c) the conclusion of legally binding instruments to assure the Non-nuclear Weapons States against the use of threat of use of nuclear weapons; d) the ban on fissile materials and other nuclear devices for weapon purposes; e) the elimination of nuclear weapons and other weapons of mass destruction; f) the establishment of nuclear free zones, and g) the unimpeded and non-discriminatory transfer of nuclear technology for peaceful purposes to all States Parties without exception.
96. They stressed that in accordance with the general conference resolution 388, the IAEA is invited to undertake its main activities, namely safeguards implementation and technical cooperation with the same emphasis. In this context, they also stressed the necessity to take into account the fundamental and structural changes that have taken place in the world nuclear community particularly with regard to the peaceful uses of nuclear energy in the different domains of socio-economic development. Therefore, they declared their conviction that Article VI of the IAEA statute should be amended, no later than the 40th anniversary of the agency, in order to expand the size and composition of the governing council with the aim of increasing its representativity and efficiency. They welcomed in this regard the formal proposal submitted by the Kingdom of Morocco (contained in document gov/rev1) with the objective of reaching a consensus on it at the 49th General Conference of IAEA.
97. They urged the negotiation of an international convention prohibiting the use of threat of use of nuclear weapons under any circumstances and took note of the Resolution 49/75K, "Request for an advisory opinion from the International Court of Justice on the legality of the threat or use of nuclear weapons", adopted by the General Assembly at its forty-ninth regular session.
98. The Heads of State or Government signatories to the Treaty took note of the work carried out by the Preparatory Committee of the Organization of the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (OPCW) and expressed their concern at the lack of progress in its negotiations on various issues. These included the delay of major possessors of chemical weapons stockpiles to move towards ratifications and on Article 11 of the Convention relating to economic and technical cooperation in the chemical sector. These would entail negative implications for the future of the Chemical Weapons Convention, inter alia, on its effective implementation, universal adherence and timely coming into force. They there fore reiterated the need for active participation and a more coordinated position of Non-Aligned Countries signatory to the Chemical Weapons Convention in the meetings of the OPCW as well as in the course of the United Nations General Assembly sessions. Likewise, they called on the developed countries to promote international cooperation through the transfer of technology, material and equipment of peaceful purposes in the chemical field and removal of all existing multilateral as well as national discriminatory restriction that are contrary to the letter and spirit of the convention.
99. The Heads of State or Government took note of the continuing deliberations relating to the establishment of a verification mechanism for the Biological Weapons Convention. They emphasized that recent developments in the field of biotechnology are of crucial importance for the economic development of the Non-Aligned Countries, especially in sectors of agriculture and health. In this context, they called for the adoption of specific measures to ensure full and effective implementation of provisions of the convention on peaceful use and removal of all restrictions on transfer of material, equipment and technology for peaceful purposes to all States Parties without exception and reiterated that noting in the Convention shall be interpreted in a manner that would be used to impose any restrictions that commitments in this regard constitute an essential part of any voluntary verification regime.
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100. The Heads of State or Government stressed the urgency of the need to curb the excessive production, development and buildup of conventional armaments, taking into account the legitimate requirement of States for self-defence and the specific characteristics of each region. In this context, they stressed that peaceful resolution of regional and inter-State disputes is essential for the creation of conditions which would enable States to divert their resources from armaments to economic growth and development.
101. While recognizing that there is also a significant imbalance in the production, possession and trade in conventional weapons between the industrialized and the Non-Aligned Countries, they called for a significant reduction in the production and possession of conventional weapons by the States with the largest arsenals with a view to enhancing international and regional peace and security.
102. They urged Sates in various regions of the world to negotiate agreements to promote greater balance in conventional armaments and restraints in production and acquisition of conventional arms and, where necessary, for their progressive and balanced reduction, with a view to enhancing international and regional peace and security. They opposed the unilateral and discriminatory measures imposed by some industrialized States to prevent the transfer and acquisition of defence material to Non-Aligned and other countries essential for their self-defence requirements.
103. The Heads of State or Government urged States to ensure an adequate body of national legislation to deal effectively with the problem of illicit transfer of arms. They called upon States to cooperate at international level in the exchange of information and possible ways and means to deal with the illicit traffic of weapons.
104. They also stressed the advisability of encouraging the adoption and effective application of measures for confidence-building and transparency at the global and regional levels. In the interest of effectively encouraging measures of this type, they considered it important that the operation of the United Nations Regional Centres for Disarmament and Development, which could play a unique role, be revitalized through effective and substantive programs.
105. The Heads of State or Government expressed serious concern over the indiscriminate use of anti-personnel mines in contravention of international humanitarian law which has caused civilian casualties on a large scale. They took note of the decision of several countries to adopt moratoria on the production of certain kinds of anti-personnel land-mines. They also took note of the results achieved recently at the Review Conference of the 1980 Convention on Prohibitions or Restriction on the Use of Certain Conventional Weapons. They reiterated their support for the creation of the United Nations fund for the clearance of mines and called for the urgent provision of resources to the fund, particularly by the exporting countries of such devices. They expressed the hope that the resumed session of the Conference in Geneva would adopt additional measures concerning the prohibition and use of certain types of anti-personnel mines, as well as additional limitations and restrictions on the use of weapons covered under the convention, along with specific measures to ensure full and unimpeded access to material equipment and technology for mine clearance.
106. The Heads of State and Government noted that restrictions were being placed by developed countries on access to technology, though the imposition of non-transparent ad hoc export control regimes with exclusive membership, under the pretext of proliferation concerns. These tend to impede the economic and social development of the developing countries. In order to effectively tackle proliferation concerns, these expert control regimes need to be made transparent and able to distinguish between civilian and non-civilian applications of technologies. The Heads of State or Government emphasized that the requirements of rapid economic and social development necessitate the need for multilaterally negotiated, universal, comprehensive and non-discriminatory sensitive technology transfer agreements. They further stressed that States Parties possessing the relevant technologies should fully comply with their obligations deriving from the relevant international instruments such as NPT and CWC. They reiterated that all States have the right to be fully represented and participate in any arrangement which deal with the said undertakings.
107. They welcomed the establishment by the Non-Aligned Movement Coordinating Bureau in New York of a Working Group on Disarmament with the task of coordinating a common position on all issues related to disarmament, so as to enable the Movement to formulate a unified stance in pursuing general and complete disarmament under effective international control.
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108. They supported the convening of the Fourth Special Session of the United Nations General Assembly Devoted to Disarmament, in 1997, that would offer an opportunity to review, from a perspective more in tune with the current international situation, the most critical aspects borne by the process of disarmament, and to mobilize the international community and the republic opinion in favour of the elimination of weapons of mass destruction and for the control and the reduction of conventional weapons.
109. The Heads of State or Government reiterated their concern over the fact that the arms race absorbs an important proportion of human, financial, material and technological resources in today's world, imposes a heavy burden on the economies of all countries, in particular Non-Aligned Countries and other developing countries, and affects international trade, financial and technological flows. Furthermore, they expressed concern over the dramatic contrast between world military expenditures and the impact of underdevelopment, with its sequel of misery and poverty affecting more than two thirds of humankind. The Heads of State or Government urged the international community to devote part of the resources made available by the implementation of disarmament and arms limitation agreements to economic and social development, with a view to reduce the ever widening gap between developed and developing countries.
110. The Heads of State or Government called for the expansion of the membership of the Conference on Disarmament at the earliest possible date and welcomed the recent statement of the Moroccan Chairman of the Conference on Disarmament on this issue.
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111. They registered their satisfaction at the work being carried out by the Ad Hoc Committee on the Indian Ocean and called upon the Permanent Members of the Security Council and the major maritime users of the Indian Ocean to participate in the work of the Committee, in order to contribute to the strengthening of peace, security, stability and cooperation in the region in light of resolutions 48/82 and 49/82 of the General Assembly of the United Nations.
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112. They expressed their great concern at the acts of terrorism and subversion which, under various pretexts and disguises, result in the most flagrant violation of human rights and seek destabilizing the prevailing constitutional order and political unity of sovereign States.
113. They welcomed with satisfaction the adoption by the General Assembly of the Declaration on Measures to Eliminate International Terrorism (UNGA Resolution 49/60) and urged that it be implemented. They reiterated their condemnation of all acts, methods and practices of terrorism, as they have adverse consequences inter alia on the economy and social development of States. They declared that terrorism affects also the stability of nations and the very basis of societies especially pluralistic societies. They also called for the urgent conclusion and the effective implementation of a comprehensive international convention for combating terrorism.
114. They further urged all States to cooperate to enhance international cooperation in the fight against terrorism wherever by whoever against whomever it occurs at the national, regional and international levels and to observe and implement the relevant international and bilateral instruments, taking into account the Final Document of the UN Conference on the Prevention of Crime held in Cairo in 1995.
115. They affirmed that criminal acts intended or calculated to provoke a state of terror in the general public; a group of persons or particular persons for whatever purposes are in any circumstances unjustifiable whatever the considerations of factors that may be invoked to justify them.
116. They reaffirmed that all States are under the obligation by the purposes and principles and other provisions of the Charter of the United Nations and other relevant international instruments, codes of conduct and other rules of international law to refrain from organizing, assisting of participating in terrorist acts in the territories of other States or acquiescing in or encouraging activities within the territories directed towards the commission of such acts including allowing the use of national territories and territories under their jurisdiction for planning and training for that purpose. The Heads of State or Government solemnly reaffirmed the unequivocal condemnation of any political, diplomatic, moral or material support to terrorism.
117. They reaffirmed the Movement's principled position under the international law on the legitimacy of struggle of peoples under colonial or alien domination and foreign occupation for national liberation and self-determination which did not constitute terrorism.
118. They called once again for the endorsement in principle of the call for the definition of terrorism to differentiate it from the legitimate struggle of peoples under colonial or alien domination and foreign occupation, for self-determination and national liberation.
119. They stressed the need to combat terrorism in all its forms and manifestations regardless of race, religion or nationality of the victims or perpetrators of terrorism.
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120. The Heads of State or Government concurred that peace and harmony among nations and peoples require States to respect and promote the rule of law. for this reason, they committed themselves to conduct their external affairs based upon the obligations of international law. They agreed that only an international society governed by law could assure peace and security for all its members.
121. The Heads of State or Government reaffirmed the General Assembly resolution 44/23 and the strong support of the NAM; for the program of the United Nations Decade of International Law, including the recommendation of holding a Third International Peace Conference at the conclusion of the decade on the occasion of the 100th anniversary of the First International Peace Conference which was held in The Hague.
122. Further progress is necessary to achieve full respect for international law and the International Court of Justice, and, inter alia, for promoting the peaceful settlements of disputes and a system of international criminal justice with respect to crimes against humanity as well as other international offences.
123. The Charter refers to the International Court of Justice as the Organization's principal judicial organ. The Security Council should make greater use of the World Court as a source of advisory opinions, and in controversial instances, using the World Court as a source of interpreting relevant international law and consider decisions to review by the World Court.
124. The Heads of State or Government emphasized that international law must be kept above the exigencies of politics. It is therefore essential to maintain autonomy of judicial organs being created. These organs must be separate from, and independent of, political organs of the United Nations, which cannot assume the role of a parallel or superior court of justice.
125. The Heads of State or Government emphasized that integrity of legal instruments adopted by Member States must be maintained.
126. With the conclusion of the Cold War many new areas of concern have emerged which warrant a renewal of commitment of the international community to uphold and defend the principles of the United Nations Charter and international law as well as a fuller utilization of the mechanism and means for the pacific settlement of disputes, as envisaged in the United Nations charter.
127. They recalled the initiative to proclaim at the forty-fourth session of the United Nations General Assembly the period of 1990-1999 as Decade of International Law, which was endorsed by the Ninth Summit of the Non-Aligned Movement in Belgrade in 1989.
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128. The Heads of State or Government welcomed the entry into force of the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea and the establishment of the International Seabed Authority in Jamaica. They urged countries that have not yet done so, to ratify the Convention and its implementing agreements. They reaffirmed that the Convention and the agreement represent significant achievements of the international community through multilateral efforts in creating a legal order for the seas and the oceans which will, inter alia, facilitate international communications, promote the peaceful uses of the seas and oceans, the equitable and efficient utilization of their resources, the conservation of their living sources, as well as the protection and preservation of the marine environment.
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129. They emphasized the need for a renewal of commitment by the international community to uphold and defend the principles of the U.N. Charter and international law as well as the means envisaged in the U.N. Charter for the pacific settlement of disputes. The role of the Movement in promoting a just international order would largely depend on its inner strength, unity and cohesion. It is therefore incumbent on all Member States to work earnestly towards promoting the solidarity and unity of the Movement.
130. To this end, the Heads of State or Government reiterated their decision to mandate the Coordinating Bureau to study further the question of a mechanism for peaceful settlement of disputes between Member States, including proposals made and positions expressed at the Summit and to report to the Committee on Methodology.