Basic Documents: Final Document
Chapter III : Economic Issues
198. Upon examining the evolution of the international economic situation since the Jakarta Summit in 1992, the Heads of State or Government observed that though there have been signs of progress in some countries, no indications can be seen pointing to a rapid and solid recovery of the world economy. They also noted that some of the positive trends observed in the developing countries in the last years, with respect to economic growth rates, increase in trade and foreign investment, as well as certain relief in the external depth problem, have only been experienced by a small group of countries. They concluded that the expectations for a more just, non-discriminatory and equitable international economic order have not been fulfilled.
199. The Heads of State or Government noted that the end of the Cold War, as well as the increased interdependence and globalization of the international economy, are giving rise to new tensions, imbalances and stagnation, and to the increasing marginalization of the large majority of developing countries. The gap between rich and poor countries continues to widen. Instabilities spread more quickly from one country to another, particularly to developing countries, which are now more vulnerable and sensitive to external factors. The liberalization and globalization of financial markets have turned into a source of colatility and imbalances.
200. The Heads of State or Government were concerned about the implications of the new priorities of the developed countries favouring the economies in transition and trading blocks in the North, while many of the countries of the Movement continue to be burdened by economic stagnation and social backwardness.
201. The Heads of State or Government acknowledged at the same time that the post Cold War era offers opportunities and challenges for the dialogue on international economic cooperation. They reiterated their decision to place development, with special attention to economic growth and the eradication of poverty, as a priority issue on the agenda of the Movement.
202. This will require greater coordination among the developing countries to enhance their capacity of action and approach new problems with an integrated vision. The Movement, while subscribing to the values of environmental protection, labour standards, intellectual property, sound macro-economic management and promotion and protection of human rights, rejects all attempts to use these issues as conditionalities and pretexts for restricting market access or aid and technology flows to developing countries.
203. The Heads of State or Government emphasized that international cooperation for development must be oriented toward creating a more favourable and dynamic international economic environment, a necessary condition to facilitate the efforts of Non-Aligned Countries and other developing countries in their struggle to eradicate poverty, attain economic and social progress and achieve conditions of sustained economic growth and sustainable development. In order to achieve this aim, they reaffirmed the need to implement, as adopted and as a matter of priority, the agreements contained in the main international conferences in the area of development. They reiterated that those agreements should be implemented in a coherent and integrated manner.
204. The decision-making processes and mechanisms prevailing in international institutions in addressing the major issues of the world economy do not incorporate the developing countries nor take into account their interests and concerns. The need for the democratization of international economic relations is more urgent that ever. The Heads of State or Government reiterated the need for such democratization and transparency in international economic and financial decision-making in all fora and at so as to ensure that their development interests will be fully taken into account.
205. The changes in the configuration of international economic institutions in the last years have produced debilitating effects on the most universal and representative organizations such as the United Nations, generating additional disadvantages against the developing countries and reducing even further their capability of influencing the major decision-making organs.
206. On the occasion of the 50th Anniversary of the founding of the United Nations, the Movement acknowledges the role played by the United Nations in providing a universal, democratic and in-depth perspective on international cooperation for development and contributing to policy-making in this area. The Movement pledges to support the efforts to put development cooperation at the centre of the United Nations mandate, role and functions. Promoting long-term social development and a more balanced universal economic growth and development should be primary focus of the United Nations. For this to become reality there is a need for the United Nations to begin the process of reforming itself to better deal with the conditions of the new global economy.
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207. The Heads of State or Government believed that it is imperative that the United Nations, the international Monetary Fund, the World Bank and the World Trade Organization (WTO), play an effective role in correcting world economic imbalances. To this end, they reiterated the need to strengthen cooperation and coordination between the Bretton Woods institutions, the WTO and the United Nations in order to achieve greater transparency and coherence in trade, monetary and financial policies. In this regard, they congratulate themselves that, on the King Hassan II proposal, a working group has been set up in WTO to review commercial, financial and monetary policy coherence. The Heads of State or Government stressed the need for those institutions to adapt and adjust their policies and programmes to critical needs of developing countries.
208. The Heads of State or Government also reaffirmed the necessity that all members of the international community streamline their economic and financial policies with the requirements of an increasingly interdependent international economy.
209. To consolidate a new stage of partnership for development, overcoming confrontation and strengthening cooperation, there is no alternative other than a constructive dialogue between developed countries and developing countries. Such a dialogue should be based on common interests, mutual benefits, genuine interdependence and shared responsibilities.
210. In this context, Heads of State or Government underlined the significance of macroeconomic policy coordination in reducing the uncertainties pertaining to trade, financial flows, transfer of technology and investment worldwide. They further recommended the urgent need for the creation of a supportive international economic environment in the form of improved access to the markets of developed countries, the removal of unfair trade practices, the evolution of predictable and non-discriminatory trade policies, the greater encouragement of foreign investment and the reduction of the debt burden. IN the area of development assistance, it is imperative that new and additional financial resources be provided by developed countries and for the transfer of technology on preferential and concessional terms to be promoted. The dialogue should also concentrate on projects and programmes of developmental priority and their management and execution in a manner conducive to obtaining concrete and effective results.
211. In this regard, the Heads of State or Government welcomed the call made by the President of the Republic of Tunisia, H.E. Mr Zine El-Abidine Ben Ali, before the United Nations General Assembly in 1989, for a contract for peace and progress between the developing and the developed countries.
212. It is imperative that the Non-Aligned Countries and other developing countries draw up a common strategy, in consonance with the profound transformation of the international environment, in order to enhance their capacity for negotiation in the dialogue with the developed countries, taking into account the conclusions of the South Commission and the changes in the world situation. The Heads of State or Government agreed to convene an open-ended high-level group of experts to be entrusted with the task of formulating specific proposals for the common strategy. They further agreed that such recommendations will be presented to the Chairman of the Movement and submitted for consideration to a future Meeting of the Ministers for Foreign Affairs of the Movement.
213. The Heads of State or Government also agreed to the establishment of an open-ended high-level expert forum with a view to evolving integrated and well-coordinated perspectives for international cooperation in the 21st century through closer interlinkages with the Group of 77 and other regional and sub-regional institutions.
214. The Heads of State or Government invited H.E. President Ernesto Samper, as Chairman of the Non-Aligned Movement, to continue to meet with the leaders of the developed countries, including the leaders of the Group of 7, so as to promote dialogue and foster greater understanding of the aspirations, views and positions of the developing countries on international economic and development issues. They also invited the Chairman of the Coordinating Bureau of the Non-Aligned Movement, in close cooperation and coordination with the Chairman of the Group of 77, to support the preparations for such meetings.
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215. The Heads of State or Government reaffirmed their conviction that no lasting peace and security can be assured without the eradication of poverty and the achievement of sustained economic growth and development of the developing countries. As a result of the increasing interdependence of countries, it is imperative to ensure effective responses and solutions through international economic cooperation so that significant progress can be made at the national, regional and global levels.
216. The Head of State or Government attached high priority to the Agenda for Development. It provides a unique opportunity to launch a process of constructive dialogue, aimed at the creation of a genuine partnership on development issues, and revitalize international cooperation for development. It will put to a test the political will for an effective resumption of the dialogue between the developing countries and the developed countries. In order for that dialogue and partnership to be effective, it is essential that the Agenda reflects a new attitude and stronger commitment to address the existing fundamental imbalances in core areas such as international trade, investment, external finance, external debt, science and technology and external resources for development, including United Nations system resources for development.
217. The Agenda must also pay due attention to the human being, the improvement of the quality of life, the eradication of hunger, disease, illiteracy, overcrowding and unemployment. Based on the results of the World Summit for Social Development, the Agenda should reflect the practical measures required to eradicate poverty, the satisfaction of basic needs and the generation of employment. The improvement of education and the status of women are equally essential for development.
218. The Agenda must be based on a clear set of specific actions, oriented toward accelerated and sustained economic growth and social development. It must have as an initial basis the effective implementation of existing international commitments and agreements in the area of economic and social development, as well as the incorporation of actions and measures that would be necessary to face the new challenges and opportunities. It must be based, furthermore, on the fundamental principle that development is an essential requirement for peace and security.
219. The Agenda for Development must address the need to clearly specify underline and strengthen the role of the united Nations in development, including international economic policy-making and coordination and the promotion of economic growth, taking into account the universal character and democratic principles of the Organization. Any attempt to divert the United Nations from its original mission in development must be resisted. The United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD) and the specialized agencies, particularly the United Nations Industrial Development Organization (UNIDO), should play a key role as focal points of the United Nations system in the areas, among others, of trade and development and the industrial development of developing countries. The Agenda should clearly spell out the means to intensify the relationship between the United Nations and the specialized agencies and organizations, including the Bretton Woods institutions, the World Trade Organization and other multilateral institutions, in order to enhance cooperation and greater coherence towards achieving the objectives of the Agenda for Development as set out above.
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220. The Heads of State or Government attached vital importance to international trade as a means of accelerating world economic growth and development and as an effective tool for international cooperation. They agreed that the expansion in trade will result in mutual benefit to the developing countries and the developed countries. It is necessary to give further impetus to trade liberalization efforts and expansion of trade for the benefit of all countries, particularly developing countries, while at the same time being attentive to any threat to the multilateral trading system posed by discriminatory restrictions, utilateral actions and/or onerous conditionalities.
221. The Heads of State or Government welcomed the signing in Marrakesh, Morocco of the Uruguay Round agreements. They emphasized that the new commitments and procedures contained in those agreements should be translated into a greater market access, an expansion of world trade and an increase in income and employment opportunities throughout the world, particularly in the developing countries. They hoped that with the entry into force of the World Trade Organization, rapid progress will be made to guarantee the full implementation of multilateral principles and commitments, and preventing or correcting unilateral protectionist measures.
222. The Heads of State or Government recalled that some of the analysis and projections had already indicated that, while the implementation of the Uruguay Round provides new trade opportunities, it might affect the interests of the developing countries, in particular the least developed countries, the net food importing countries and those which enjoyed trade preferences.
223. The Heads of State or Government declared that the World Trade Organization should contribute to realizing and expanding an open, predictable. equitable, non-discriminatory and secure multilateral trading system, based on clear and transparent procedures, as well as the protection of the rights and interests of the developing countries. They considered, furthermore, that it must be governed by principles of universality in its deliberations and equity with regard to participation and preferential and differential treatment for developing countries. It is also of primary importance that its relationship with the United Nations system be defined at the earliest, including the coordination mechanisms between both institutions.
224. The Heads of State or Government called on the World Trade Organization to consider specific activities including those in cooperation with the United Nations to contribute to the implementation of the Copenhagen Programme of Action.
225. The implementation of the Marrakesh accords must be subject to continued evaluation, in order to promote increased market access for developing countries in respect of commodities, manufactures and services of export interest to them and the expansion of international trade. In this respect, the Heads of State or Government considered that the Ministerial Conference of WTO which will be held in Singapore in 1996 should be an opportunity to assess the implementation of the commitments undertaken in favour of developing countries in order to evaluate their impact on trade, in particular on the agricultural sector. Furthermore, they decided to convene a Conference of Developing Countries under UNCTAD auspices to carry out an evaluation of the implementation of the Uruguay Round agreements. They stressed the need to take appropriate measures consistent with the Final Act of the Uruguay Round, in favour of the Least Developed Countries (LDCs) and the net food importing developing countries with the full implementation of the Ministerial Decision adopted in Marrakesh at the end of the Uruguay Round of Multilateral Trade Negotiations in order to give these countries special attention with a view to enhancing their participation in the multilateral trading system and mitigating any adverse effects of the implementation of the Final Act of the Uruguay Round Agreement. The Heads of State or Government emphasized the importance of the commitments concerning the special and differential measures in favour of the developing countries as well as those aimed at mitigating any adverse effects on those countries resulting from the implementation of the accords.
226. The Heads of State or Government noted with concern that some developed countries continue to ignore multilaterally agreed trading rules by imposing unilateral protectionist measures, allowing domestic policies to prevail over multilateral trading commitments. They deplored the fact that such an attitude comes right after the extraordinary effort that was necessary to conclude the Uruguay Round and the new context in which developing countries made substantial progress toward liberalizing their trade regimes and integrating their economies into the world trade. These efforts should be balanced by a recognition and credit for tariffs binding undertaken by developing countries. They emphasized the importance of an increase in non-discriminating market access to the products of developing countries in the markets of developed countries and the need to resist and roll-back all forms of direct and indirect protectionism.
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227. The Heads of State or Government declared that the implementation of the Marakesh accords should take into consideration the constraints derived from liberalization measures posed by international financial institutions in developing countries. It is paradoxical to expect developing countries to open their markets and lift international exchange restrictions, including non-tariff measures, while the developed countries adopt protectionist measures that make the developing countries unable to fully meet their commitments to the international financial institutions.
228. The Heads of State or Government expressed their concern at the increasing trend towards new types of protectionism that are coming up in major developed country markets. it is in the interest of both developed and developing countries and of the multilateral trading system that this trend be reversed. While recognizing that the promote sustained economic growth and sustainable development, environment and trade should be mutually supportive, they cautioned that the introduction of environmental labelling or social clauses in the international trade regime would have a negative impact on economic growth and development, and would shift toward developing countries an unjustifiable economic and social burden. In this context, The Heads of State or Government also expressed their concern about attempts to overload the agenda of the nascent World Trade Organization, as it could unravel the carefully balanced package of rights and obligations even before the Uruguay Round Agreements have been implemented and the new WTO has had time and space to establish and consolidate itself in overseeing their smooth implementation. They stated that trade policy must be based on the fundamental principle of comparative advantage and should not be used as a panacea to resolve all problems. They also noted with concern the increasing use by developed countries of antidumping and compensatory measures with purely protectionist objectives as well as unilateral actions inconsistent with international commercial rules.
229. The Heads of State or Government made manifest the need of developing countries for technical and financial assistance from developed countries and international organizations and trade institutions, in order to take advantage of the new opportunities of the multilateral trading system and to promote the diversification of their exports. They emphasized that developed countries should play a more active role in strengthening the capacity of developing countries so that they can participate effectively in the trading system as full players.
230. The Heads of State or Government emphasized the importance of enabling UNCTAD to fully perform its role as essential focal point of the United Nations system for, inter alia, promoting trade and development in the developing countries. They recognized that UNCTAD is the only forum within the United Nations where development issues are treated in an integrated manner and where interlinkages of issues and sectors and of countries and regions are addressed. Therefore, the Heads of State or Government reaffirmed the strong commitment of the Non-Aligned Movement to strengthen UNCTAD, including its actions for the provision of adequate resources by the developed countries and expressed their firm determination to oppose any attempt to weaken or undermine the contributions of UNCTAD to the development process of the developing countries.
231. The recent developments and institutional changes, among them the creation of the World Trade Organization, have reinforced the need for UNCTAD as a policy-oriented forum with a strong development perspective. The Heads of State or Government considered it necessary that the output of its intergovernmental deliberations be more policy- and action-oriented, and that there be more participation by developing countries in UNCTAD's policy-making. The Heads of State or Government agreed that development policy-making should not be monopolized by a small directorate of countries and stressed that UNCTAD, as a universal forum, can help correct such imbalances by offering a wider range of policy choices to the developing countries and thereby further the development dialogue. In the formulation of new policies and direction a balanced approach in policy analysis is vital to take into account the limited capability of developing countries to adapt to the new multilateral responsibilities as well as the constraints that they face.
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232. The Heads of State or Government reaffirmed the central role of UNCTAD as the universal forum for intergovernmental deliberations and negotiation, policy and consensus building, monitoring, implementation and follow-up and technical cooperation, with a view to accelerating economic growth and development, particularly of developing countries. They noted that UNCTAD offers an appropriate forum for building consensus on new and emerging issues and preparing the groundwork for negotiations of further trade agreements in the appropriate fora. They reaffirmed support for the mandate of UNCTAD for the integrated treatment of development and inter-related issues including trade commodities, finance, investment, external debt, services, technology and environment. They stressed the critical importance of enabling UNCTAD to discharge its mandate fully.
233. The Heads of State or Government urged UNCTAD, in the context of preparations for UNCTAD-IX, to give increased focus to priority issues for development and to identify ways of maximizing the development impact of globalization and liberalization while minimizing the dangers of instability and marginalization. They requested UNCTAD to study trends and issues in the world economy, particularly those that have an impact on developing countries and propose policies and measures, both international and national, that can address projected problems. They urged UNCTAD to strengthen its think-tank role for developing countries in the context of a changing world economic environment and to identify, examine and present alternative paths to development.
234. The Heads of State or Government urged UNCTAD to
perform the following tasks in the developmental context:
235. The Heads of State or Government welcomed the hosting of the ninth session of UNCTAD by the Government of the Republic of South Africa in Johannesburg from 26 April to 11 May 1996, and looked forward to UNCTAD-IX as a means towards strengthening the mandate and role of UNCTAD on trade and development and providing important policy directions for global development. They committed themselves to launching a successful process of preparation and implementation of UNCTAD-IX.
236. The Heads of State or Government declared that an effective coordination of the position of the Movement is essential to renew and enhance the Generalized System of Preferences (GSP), with the aim of significantly promoting the stable and enhanced access for their export of commodities, manufactures and services to the markets of the developed countries. They stressed their opposition to restrictions of GSP as tools of coercion reflecting protectionist trends in developed countries. They agreed that there was an urgent need for improvement in the GSP schemes by expansion of product coverage, lowering or removing of GSP duties in account of reduction in Most Favoured Nation (MFN) clauses in the Uruguay Round, expansion of schemes to new products of interest to developing countries and establishment of objective criteria for graduation. They expressed concern that schemes would be weakened by linking them to new conditionalities. In this context, they also called upon GSP donors to simplify and harmonize the rules of origin.
237. The Heads of State or Government condemned the fact that certain countries, using their predominant position in the world economy, continue to intensify the adoption of unilateral coercive measures against developing countries, which are in clear contradiction with international law, such as trade restrictions, blockades, embargoes and freezing of assets with the purpose of preventing these countries from exercising their right to fully determine their political, economic and social system and freely expand their international trade. They deemed such measures unacceptable and called for their immediate cessation.
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238. The Heads of State or Government urgently called upon the developed countries to put an end to all political conditionalities to international trade, developmental assistance and investment, as they are fully in contradiction with the universal principles of self-determination, national sovereignty and non-interference in internal affairs.
239. The Heads of State or Government recognized that in many developing countries, in particular the Least Developed Countries, the commodity sector remains the principal source of export revenues, employment, income and savings, and a significant contributor to the goal of development. However, the deterioration of prices and disorganization in certain commodity markets have greatly undermined their development efforts, as well as their capacity to service the external debt. They made a call for the elimination of supply and demand distortions that precipitate such an uncertain situation.
240. The Heads of State or Government emphasized the importance of maximizing the contribution of commodities to economic growth and development in particular in commodity dependant countries. In this regard, they stressed the need for the improvement of the functioning of international commodity markets through efficient, transparent, stable and adequate price formation. They also called for international support to the developing countries efforts to modernize and diversify their commodity activities, in order to increase their external revenue and to improve their competitiveness in face of persistent instability of prices and the general deterioration in terms of trade.
241. The Heads of State or Government committed themselves to strengthening international cooperation in the field of commodities. They called upon the international community to support the efforts of the developing countries to improve the processing, marketing, distribution, and transportation of commodities and in this regard to take advantage of the new advanced in science and technology. They also called upon the developed countries to improve the access to their markets through the lifting of tariff and non-tariff barriers, and the abolition of subsidies that obstruct commodity exports of developing countries.
242. The Heads of State or Government emphasized the need to accomplish existing commodity agreements and the negotiation of others. They welcomed the policy measures adopted by UNCTAD regarding the full and active participation of consumers and producers in international commodity agreements. They considered that the Integrated programme for Commodities and the Common Fund of Commodities, adopted after intensive negotiations but almost abandoned at present, deserve to be examined anew. Furthermore, they stated that complementary measures should be promoted such as diversification of experts and improving the quality and competitiveness of commodities. Compensatory financing for deficits caused by revenue shortfalls on export commodities of developing countries should be considered as a complementary and integral part of international measures in this area. They considered it appropriate for UNCTAD to renew consultations on the proposed convening of an international conference on commodities.
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243. The Heads of State or Government declared that the implementation of the commitments adopted by various international conferences in the economic and social fields require the mobilization of a substantial volume of new and additional resources to developing countries. It is not sufficient to rely on the shifting of priorities or reallocation of national budget and Official Development Assistance. They called upon the developed countries that have not done so to fulfil the commitment to allocate 0.7% of their GNP to official development assistance before the year 2000.
244. The Heads of State or Government expressed their support for the "20/20 concept" as endorsed by the World Summit for Social Development, calling for a mutual commitment between interested developed and developing country partners to allocate, on average 20 percent of the Official Development Assistance and 20 percent of the national budget, respectively, to basic social programmes.
245. The Heads of State or Government registered their concern at the ever increasing diversion of financial flows from developing countries to countries with economies in transition. The needs of these countries should be met with additional resources, without detriment to the resources allocated to developing countries.
246. The Heads of State or Government noted how private financial flows to developing countries have been concentrated in a few countries and sectors, and do not compensate the effects of the long period of negative flows. At present these flows are mainly short-term and speculative in character and in many cases have produced serious exchange imbalances. They called upon the international community to design a multilateral surveillance mechanism to monitor short-term private capital flows from developed countries and to safeguard the developing countries from the adverse effects of the volatility of such flows.
247. The Heads of State or Government registered that despite the efforts undertaken by the Non-Aligned Countries and other developing countries to create a favourable climate for direct foreign investment, the present level of such flows is insufficient to meet their developmental needs. it is necessary to ensure their increase and diversification. The fulfilment of this objective should be facilitated with the support of developed countries, particularly through opening their markets, and the participation of international economic and financial organizations.
248. The Heads of State or Government were concerned on the impact that new protectionism in developed countries will have on FDI flows to developing countries. New stimulus and policy support needs to be given to foreign direct investment (FDI) flows to developing countries by home countries to complement efforts at attracting investments by host countries.
249. The Heads of State or Government noted that the measures adopted by the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund through their various concessional mechanisms have proved insufficient against the requirements of development. Equally insufficient has been the fourth replenishment of the International Fund for Agricultural Development and the restructuring and replenishment of resources of the global Environment Facility. They called upon the donor developed countries to meet their commitments under the tenth replenishment of the International Development Association (IDA) and accelerate negotiations for its eleventh replenishment and trust that it will translate into a significant increase of funds.
250. The Heads of State or Government underlined the need to increase the capital base of the World Bank and the regional development banks in order to contribute more effectively to mobilizing the world savings and to channel them toward projects and programs of developing countries. To this end, they also called upon the creditor developed countries for an increase of IMF resources, including the allocation of new development-oriented Special Drawing Rights.
251. The Heads of State or Government called the developed countries for an increase, in real terms, of resources for the Structural Adjustment Facility (SAF) and the Enhanced Structural Adjustment Facility (ESAF), of the International Monetary Fund (IFM), as a means of providing medium-term concessional flows to low-income countries. They also supported the transformation of the ESAF into a permanent IFM facility.
252. The Heads of State or Government declared that when the Structural Adjustment Programmes (SAPs) are agreed to, they should be fully funded and include social development goals, in particular eradicating poverty, promoting full and productive employment, and enhancing social integration.
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253. The Heads of State or Government emphasized the importance of strengthening the funds, programmes and specialized agencies of the United Nations system, as appropriate channels for allocating resources for international cooperation. They called for the adoption of necessary measures to guarantee the financing of the operational activities of the United Nations on a stable, predictable and assured basis. They considered that the imbalance between the volume of resources allocated to Peace-Keeping Operations and emergency humanitarian assistance activities, as opposed to those allocated to development, must also be corrected.
254. The Heads of State or Government noted that the prevailing international monetary and financial system has not succeeded in satisfying the requirement of the Non-Aligned Countries and other developing countries, in stimulating stable world economic growth, nor in creating a financial climate that is conducive to sustained economic growth and development. The consultations and decision-making processes of multilateral monetary and financial institutions should be democratized. The limited participation of developing countries in such consultations and processes has meant that their interests and needs remain largely unattended to.
255. The Heads of State or Government noted that the globalization of capital markets and the volatility of capital flows, interest rates and exchange rates, which have particular adverse impact on the developing countries call, among other factors, for a reform of the international monetary and financial system. They stressed that any evaluation of the functioning of such a system and the adoption of any measures aimed at its reform should be made with the participation of the developing countries. In this context, they held the view that a major intergovernmental review of the Brettong Woods institutions was imperative. The rules and responsibilities of the IMF, the World Bank and the regional banks should be reviewed in an integrated fashion within the overall framework of the United Nations. Such a review should be carried out on a truly multilateral basis, and through a democratic process.
256. The Heads of State or Government endorsed the idea of creating a Ministerial Group with the participation of Ministers from developing countries and developed countries to jointly review the operation of the international monetary and financial system and formulate recommendations aimed at its reform. The reform should, interalia, be geared toward supporting the requirements of the developing countries and should promote greater interaction and cooperation between the Bretton Woods institutions and the United Nations system. They also endorsed the initiative to convene an international conference on the financing of development to deal with issues on capital flows, resource mobilization, restrictions and exposures faced by the developing countries.
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257. The Heads of State or Government noted with concern that the debt burden and the debt service overhand of many developing countries, in particular the most severely indebted countries, have significantly increased in the last decade and are far from being resolved. These countries repetitive rescheduling of debt diverts scarce resources from attending to problems of economic development and poverty alleviation. They regretted that in spite of some measures adopted as part of commitments agreed upon during that period, most developing countries continue to be affected by the debt crisis. They expressed their deep concern on the negative impacts of excessive external debt which impinge on the capacity of developing countries to generate economic growth and undertake development programmes.
258. The Heads of State or Government expressed that the solution to the debt problem can only come about through negotiations between debtors and creditors that take into account all the dimensions of this problem, and that should go beyond adopting new relief measures, by guaranteeing a net transfer of financial resources to indebted countries, thus providing the impetus for economic growth. To this end, efforts should be made to ensure a conducive international economic environment by strengthening international cooperation, through, inter-alia, improving market access, terms of trade, access to technology and the international financial and monetary system, in terms of their stability and provision of liquidity, as well as the transfer of new and additional resources for sustained economic growth and development of the developing countries.
259. The Heads of State or Government emphasized that measures that could jeopardize the political stability and the possibilities of economic and social development of the Non-Aligned Countries and other developing countries will not constitute a viable alternative to a durable solution to the debt problem. Any approach should cover all types of debt, including multilateral debt, and all the indebted developing countries, and incorporate measures aimed at a once-and-for-all reduction arrangement to reduce their debt burden to a scale that would allow them to resume their economic growth and development, and through meaningful reduction of all categories of debt by major groups of creditor developed countries including multilateral creditors. They called for broader implementation of mechanisms that have produced positive results such as debt-for-equity and debt-for-nature swaps, as well as debt for social development swaps, without prejudice to a more durable solution such as debt reduction and/or cancellation.
260. The Heads of State or Government considered that in order to alleviate the commercial debt burden, the resources allocated to the international financial institutions for the reduction of debt service should be increased by the creditor developed countries among other measures. They stressed the need for the cancellation by the creditor developed countries of the bilateral debt of the heavily indebted low-income countries, the least developed countries and other countries facing special difficulties. They also called upon the creditor developed countries for a substantial reduction of the bilateral debt of the other developing countries.
261. The Heads of State or Government emphasized the need for the Paris Club to continue to apply measures aimed at reducing bilateral debt, including cancellation or other relief measures, and to widen the scope of those measures to include different developing countries, and increase the concessional flow of resources to countries that face special difficulties.
262. The Heads of State or Government recommended that with a view to reducing the multilateral debt of the Non-Aligned Countries and other developing countries, serious consideration should be given to the possibility of the use of Special Drawing Rights and IMF gold reserves, without any prejudice to the gold-producing developing countries, as well as other modalities to implement multilateral debt reduction. They further recommended consolidating the financial assistance provided by the International Monetary Fund and its conversion into long-term financial assistance on concessional terms, rescheduling of the structural adjustment loans by the World Bank and their conversion into long-term loans, and adopting similar measures to those applied by the Paris Club.
263. The Heads of State or Government invited creditor developed countries to grant incentives to those countries which, at great social and political cost, have continued to meet their external debt obligations. They expressed that in the case of the commercial debt of the affected countries, there should be a more flexible application of the measures envisaged under the Brady Initiative.
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264. The Heads of State or Government expressed their warm appreciation to the Republic of Colombia for the valuable donation that this country did to humankind, of the Colombian malaria vaccine developed by Professor Manuel Elkin Patarroyo Murillo and offered to the World Health Organization (WHO) for its distribution and use in developing countries. They underlined that this valuable initiative is a clear example of solidarity and South-South cooperation that brings many benefits to the countries of the Non-Aligned Movement and particularly to the most affected peoples in sub-Saharan Africa.
265. The Heads of State or Government underlined that the progress of developing countries is dependent upon their access to technology and the level of their indigenous capacity to develop it. The Non-Aligned Countries and other developing countries are marginalized on account of their being precluded from participating in the process of technological revolution. The acquisition of technologies and the decision regarding the choice of those that are suited to particular needs is a legitimate right of the developing countries. They called upon the developed countries to promote and enhance the transfer of new technologies and technical know-how to the developing countries. The developing countries should be enabled to access high technology critical for their agricultural and industrial development as well as export competitiveness. They should not be held back from accessing and using them for peaceful, developmental purposes, on grounds of these technologies having dual use.
266. The Heads of State or Government attached special importance to the transfer of environmentally sound and safe technologies. They considered that negotiations in this regard should be oriented towards the acquisition of new technologies on preferential and concessional terms, and strengthening the capacity of the developing countries to fully utilize them.
267. The Heads of State or Government underlined the need to promote technological cooperation through new partnership mechanisms between supplier and recipient countries, improve the indigenous capacity to propel scientific development, and facilitate the access of small- and medium-size enterprises to the development of technology. They recommended the adoption of measures with the aim of facilitating access to publicly-owned technologies and strengthening the mechanisms of the United Nations, in particular UNCTAD, so that they may satisfactorily fulfil their mandates in these matter. They emphasized that technology transfer cannot be left in the hands of the market or the private sector alone. The State must play an important role in the promotion of international cooperation in this area.
268. The Heads of State or Government expressed their concern at measures that aim to block, for political ends, the transfer of technology to developing countries. The controls imposed by the highly industrialized countries on the export of dual-use technology to developing countries. The controls imposed by the highly industrialized countries on the export of dual-use technology and other types of sensitive technology should not be used to prevent the access of the developing countries to technology for peaceful or developmental purposes. They emphasized that only the developing countries are in a condition to decide the type of technologies that are better suited to their resource endowments and needs.
269. The Heads of State or Government emphasized that the application of procedures to protect intellectual property rights should take into account the needs of developing countries so as not to adversely affect the financial, commercial, technological and development interests of our countries. They expressed that the protection of intellectual property must be complemented with actions directed at stimulating the creation of new indigenous technologies and emerging technologies on favourable conditions.
270. The Heads of State or Government called for the full implementation of the Vienna Programme of Action on Science and Technology for Development and called on all countries, especially the developed countries, as well as the international institutions, to consider measures to invigorate the United Nations Financing System for Science and Technology for Development, as envisaged in the Vienna Programme of Action. In this context, they also emphasized the important role played by the United Nations Commission on Science and Technology for Development and urged that it should be strengthened.
271. The Heads of State or Government also recognized the need to further support the developing countries efforts on science and technology through, inter-alia, the multilateral financial institutions, the transfer of technology between small and medium size enterprises from developing countries and developed countries, foreign direct investment flows and strengthening information systems on environmentally sound technologies.
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272. The Heads of State or Government agreed that industrialization remains an essential component of economic development, and that in the current globalized economy, economic success is synonymous with industrial and technological competitiveness. They considered that the relevance and importance of UNIDO lies in the fact that it continues to provide services to its own members that are deemed essential to their industrial development. its unique capacity for impartial and independent analysis of global, regional, national and sectoral issues affecting industrial development is an invaluable source of information and advice for governments. Its wealth of information on industrial technologies and processes are a valuable asset to developing countries in their efforts to establish and modernize their manufacturing facilities.
273. The Heads of State or Government welcomed the continuing efforts of UNIDO to concentrate its resources and activities on the priority concerns of the developing countries, inter alia, in addressing the needs of the poor, such as employment opportunities and poverty alleviation through industrial development; promoting environmentally sustainable industrial development through clean and safe production and energy efficiency; improving the international competitiveness of industries in the developing countries in the context of trade liberalization and globalization of production and capital flows; developing human resources for sustained industrial growth; and fostering international cooperation in industrial investment and technology.
274. The Heads of State or Government recognized, in the light of the present critical situation of the Organization, the necessity to support the mandate and existence of UNIDO and that its restructuring process should be conducted in such a way not to jeopardize the programmes of relevance to developing countries at the national and regional levels. In view of the new financial constraints affecting the regular budget of the Organization, they called on the developed countries to fulfil their obligations in this regard. The Member States also pledge to undertake their shared responsibility in accordance with their contributive capacity. They urged all Non-Aligned Countries Members of UNIDO to participate actively in the UNIDO General Conference to be held in Vienna in December 1995 and to contribute positively to the viable adaptation of its staffing programmes and budget.
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275. The Heads of State or Government expressed Deep concern with the further deterioration of the food and agricultural situation, in the developing countries. They considered it their duty to accord high priority in the international agenda to the solution of food and agricultural problems, and advocate the adoption of measures by Member Countries of the Movement that would contribute to the solution of the problems of hunger in the world. They affirmed that achieving food security must be a fundamental objective of development. They found it to be paradoxical that despite the substantial increase that has taken place in world food production, the number of people affected by hunger and malnutrition has increased dramatically in the last years. The new world situation offers the opportunity to manage resources more productively in order to achieve food security, particularly for the poorest and most vulnerable. In this regard, they called upon the developing countries to support the elaboration by the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) of the code of conduct for responsible fishing with the aim of preserving resources and managing and developing bioaquatic resources, taking into account the preservation of ecosystems and biodiversity. They called upon FAO, other relevant United Nations specialized agencies and multilateral financial institutions to give priority assistance to the Non-Aligned Countries and other developing countries in order to strengthen their food security programs.
276. The Heads of State or Government reaffirmed that the right to food is a fundamental human right and its promotion constitutes a moral imperative of the international community. Therefore, they emphatically rejected the use of food as an instrument of economic or political pressure.
277. The Heads of State or Government noted that in spite of the advances made by the Uruguay Round, the accords on agriculture will lead only to a partial trade liberalization, and serious distortions will persist in the agricultural commodity markets even after their full implementation. They expressed their deep concern about the negative effects of these accords on the least developed countries and the net food importing countries. Accordingly, they considered it necessary to undertake studies on the impact of the new multilateral trading system on food supply and its possible consequences on food security, particularly in developing countries.
278. The Heads of State or Government endorsed the convening of a World Food Summit to promote international cooperation in this filed and to formulate a programme of action on food security. They affirmed that the Movement will need to adopt a common position on this initiative which will required coordinated action by the Ministers of Agriculture in the framework of the Summit and its preparatory process.
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279. The Head of State or Government reaffirmed that economic and social development constitutes a priority and a fundamental right of countries. Sustainable development, therefore, must be considered within the wider context of sustained economic growth. States have the sovereign right to exploit their resources in accordance with their own environmental and developmental policies.
280. Environmental protection, sustained economic growth and sustainable development require international cooperation based on the principle of common but differentiated responsibilities. The Head of State or Government emphasized that while the environmental problems of developed countries are associated with unsustainable patters of consumption and production, those afflicting developing countries are to a large extent the by-product of poverty and underdevelopment and their technical and financial limitations. Therefore, they affirmed that the protection of the environment and economic growth should be mutually reinforced. While the Rio Declaration, Agenda 21 and other international instruments on environmental issues attest to a new spirit of partnership and cooperation in environmental matters, they were concerned with the fact that three years after the Earth Summit, the resources necessary to make these commitments a reality have not yet been allocated.
281. The Heads of State or Government committed themselves to make thorough preparations, in full collaboration with the Group of 77, for the Special Session of the General Assembly to review the implementation of the commitments, recommendations and agreements of the United Nations Programme of Action on Environment and Development scheduled for 1997.
282. The Heads of State or Government welcomed the holding of the First Conference of the Parties to the Framework Convention on Climate Change and the First Conference of the Parties to the Convention on Biological Diversity. They expressed their appreciation to the Government of Indonesia for offering to host the Second Conference of the Parties to the Convention on Biodiversity in Jakarta from 6 to 17 November 1995 and urged Member Countries to participate actively. They also urged all Member States to support the adoption of a protocol on biosafety under the Convention on Biodiversity.
283. The Heads of State or Government noted with satisfaction the conclusion in June 1994 of the negotiation of the International Convention to Combat Desertification in Those Countries Experiencing Serious Drought and/or Desertification, Particularly in Africa, as well as the proclamation by the General Assembly of 17 June as a World Day to Combat Desertification. Furthermore, they urged the international community to act towards a full and effective implementation of this Convention and its regional annexes as well as the resolution on the urgent action for Africa, in particular through the provision of new and additional financial resources, and to participate actively in the first session of the Conference of the Parties scheduled to be held in June 1997. They called upon the signatory States that have not yet done so, to accede to or ratify the Convention with a view to its early entry into force.
284. The Heads of State or Government endorsed the decisions adopted in the framework of the Basel Convention to ban, by the end of 1997, all transborder movements of hazardous wastes originating from member Countries of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) to third countries, and called for its strict and rigorous implementation. They declared that poor countries cannot afford to be the depositories of the hazardous wastes generated by the unsustainable production and consumption patterns of the Member Countries of the aforementioned Organization.
285. The Heads of State or Government called upon the international community, in particular the developed countries, to take the necessary actions to implement Agenda 21 through the allocation of new and additional financial resources, and the adoption of measures to enable the transfer of environmentally sound technologies on concessional and preferential terms, as well as through scientific and technical cooperation and dissemination of appropriate information.
286. The Heads of State or Government noted with particular attention the developments relating to the restructuring of the Global Environment Facility. They considered that the resources allocated to this mechanism should be significantly increased in order to ensure that its objective is fully achieved. They emphasized the need for decisions of the Facility to be taken in a democratic and transparent way. They committed themselves to continue reinforcing the developing countries joint participation in the activities of the Facility to safeguard their common interests, both in the orientation of its policies as well as in the financial allocation of resources.
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287. The Heads of State or Government declared that the Global Environment Facility should not be the only mechanism for the financing of sustainable development and noted the necessity to insist on the identification of their sources of new and additional financial resources.
288. The Heads of State or Government were concerned that the developed countries, either directly or through international institutions, resort to environmental pretexts to increase obstacles to trade, intervene in the internal affairs of developing countries, and impose conditionalities on official assistance and the financing of development, while their unsustainable production and consumption patterns continue to severely affect the environment. They emphasized that in no case does the adoption of unilateral trade-restricting measures based on these pretexts make any positive contribution to the conservation of the environment, yet gravely weakens the multilateral trading system.
289. The Heads of State or Government emphasized the importance of biodiversity as a strategic wealth of the developing countries, on account of both its present or potential value, and agreed that its adequate management and conservation are essential for sustainable development, especially in the most important areas of national economies such as forest utilization, agriculture, fishing, health, industry and tourism. They acknowledged that one million acres of virgin rain forest have been donated by the Government of Guyana for international scientific research which will be the property of the entire world community.
290. To this effect, the Heads of State or Government called upon the Members of the Movement to work for the implementation of the outcome of the United Nations Conference on the Conservation and Management of Straddling and Highly Migratory Fish Stocks.
291. The Heads of State or Government emphasized the importance of technology applied to biodiversity as a necessary means of securing the benefits from productivity increases in agriculture or from new and better products so that they constitute a source of economic and food security for future generations. They considered it essential to develop an appropriate framework, in order to guarantee supplier countries of genetic resources, a fair and equitable participation in research and development of projects, and in the benefits and results derived from this process.
292. The Heads of State or Government underlined that, according with the Convention on Biological Diversity, technology transfer and the efforts aimed at establishing an international system for the protection of intellectual property rights, including those related to goods and processes, should guarantee an equitable distribution of benefits arising from the use of genetic resources. In this respect, they recalled that the developing countries own the major proportion of the biological diversity in the planet. They also underscored that the local communities rules and habits must be respected and incorporated into the intellectual property rights norms. The market access should not constitute a mechanism to impose such norms.
293. The Heads of State or Government observed that, due to, inter alia, the lack of sufficient infrastructure for prevention preparedness, mitigation and disaster relief in the developing countries, these countries continued to be the main victims of natural disasters. They recommended that the Non-Aligned Countries follow-up the implementation of the Yokohama Strategy for a Safer World, and intensify cooperation among themselves in this area. They also pointed out that progress in economic development would contribute to building the infrastructure necessary for natural disaster reduction in the developing countries and that concessional resources together with technological transfer are critical to strengthen their efforts in this regard.
294. The Heads of State or Government recognized that the water issue in the world is a problem of strategic and global nature. The water reserves in the world are constantly decreasing whereas human requirements are increasing enormously. Acute shortages of water resources and potable water may become, if the situation is not redressed the cause of social upheavals and international conflicts. In this context it is necessary for competent international organizations, particularly the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), to develop intensified efforts to mobilize and generalize the use of pertinent techniques, such as aseptation of used water and desalination of sea water at the most competitive economic costs. In the field of international cooperation, the issue of water should be accorded a high priority and adequate resources be earmarked in the process of preparing the programs and budgets of interested international organizations.
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295. The Heads of State or Government reiterated that South-South Cooperation is an essential mechanism for promoting accelerated economic growth and development, giving a greater dynamics to the international economy and promoting the restructuring of international economic relations. South-South Cooperation offers new opportunities for the expansion of trade and investment, access to financial resources, technology transfer, human resources development and other forms of economic, technical and scientific cooperation. The Heads of State or Government declared that only the nurturing of a spirit of collective self-reliance and the adoption of joint strategies will allow the effective implementation of socio-economic programmes based on their own political initiatives. Thus, the Heads of State or Government strongly reaffirmed their commitment to intensify South-South cooperation with a view to achieving greater collective self-reliance of developing countries.
296. The Heads of State or Government expressed their satisfaction at the progress made in the are of bilateral, subregional, and regional cooperation and integration among the countries of the Movement. The new impetus for cooperation and integration, in addition to the creation and strengthening of subregional and regional organizations and institutions, will contribute to building a more solid platform of negotiation and dialogue with the developed countries. The Heads of State or Government noted, however, that the potential and possibilities of South-South cooperation remain far from being fully realized.
297. The Heads of State or Government welcomed the adoption by consensus of the United Nations General Assembly resolution 49/96, co-sponsored by the Non-Aligned Movement and the Group of 77, regarding the convening of a United Nations Conference on South-South Cooperation and expressed their firm support for the holding of the Conference in 1997 at the latest. They called upon the Joint Coordination Committee (JCC) of the Non-Aligned Movement and the Group of 77 to prepare a draft programme of action to serve as a basis of negotiation in the conference.
298. The Heads of State or Government welcomed the adoption of "The New Directions for TCDC" by the High-level Meeting on TCDC at its ninth session in June 1995, in response to General Assembly resolution 49/96. The new directions call for Technical Cooperation among Developing Countries (TCDC) to be reoriented so as to enable it to focus on strategic initiatives that would have a major development impact on a large number of developing countries. In doing so, it should focus on major development issues such as trade and investment, debt, environment, poverty alleviation, production and employment, as well as macro-economic coordination and management. They agreed that a central element for the successful implementation of "New Directions for TCDC" is that of operational linkages between TCDC and Economic Cooperation among Developing Countries (ECDC). In this regard, they called upon the Joint Coordinating Committee of the Non-Aligned Movement and the Group of 77 to formulate recommendations, with inputs from the South Centre, for the implementation of "The New Directions".
299. In order to facilitate and further promote South-South programmes and projects, the Heads of State or Government reiterated their conviction that evolutionary and tripartite approaches, whose effectiveness have already been demonstrated, should be intensively explore and implemented. The Heads of State or Government also stressed that in promoting such programmes and projects, consideration should be given to the support and assistance that may be provided by developed countries and relevant multilateral institutions, including the provision of financial resources in accordance with the objectives of South-South cooperation.
300. The Heads of State or Government expressed their support for the decision to give new impetus to the Action programmes on Economic Cooperation (APEC) of the Non-Aligned Movement. The Activities undertaken within its framework have been affected by the lack of financial resources and the loss of interest by Member Countries. The Heads of State or Government considered it necessary to establish priorities, to orient actions towards more clearly defined objectives, to set strict deadlines for the implementation of projects and simplify their activities. The considered that the institutions and mechanisms created by the Programme are of particular importance and therefore deserve all their support. Furthermore, they expressed the need to establish strong and effective linkages among those institutions and mechanisms, in order to facilitate effective network for information exchange, inter alia, matching exercises between capabilities and needs of developing countries in the field of technical assistance and the sharing of experiences. IN this context, they made a commitment to reactivate the meetings within the framework of APEC for its revitalization and the implementation of programmes.
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301. The Heads of State or Government also emphasized the necessity of expanding trade among Non-Aligned Countries. The Global System of Trade Preferences (GSTP) among developing countries constitutes an important means to promote and widen their mutual trade. They called upon the countries that have not yet signed or ratified the agreement, to do so as soon as possible, and invited other developing countries to join it. They called for the conclusion of the second round of negotiations of the preferential system. They took note with appreciation of the offer of the Republic of Cuba to host the Ministerial Meeting of the Negotiating Committee after the conclusion of the Round.
302. The Heads of State or Government pointed out that in order to fully take advantage of the preferences of the global system and to achieve a greater participation in the markets, the developing countries will need to modernize and make their productive sectors more competitive. It is suggested, furthermore, that their central banks, finance ministries and financial institutions seek greater interaction in order to promote trade and other South-South economic cooperation activities, in particular as regards new forms of trade financing and the strengthening of bilateral and multilateral payments arrangements among such countries.
303. Recognizing the evolving financial capacities of some developing countries, the Heads of State or Government pointed out the need to promote, through bilateral and multilateral arrangements, based on favourable and competitive terms, direct investment flows among developing countries, which in turn would generate larger markets at the bilateral, subregional, regional and interregional level.
304. The Heads of State or Government expressed their conviction that regional and sub-regional economic cooperation and integration can play an important role in the promotion of North-South and South-South cooperation as well as contribute to global peace and security. They invited the international community to lend its full support to the efforts of the developing countries aimed at the expansion of regional and sub-regional cooperation and development. In this context, the Heads of State or Government took note of the upcoming Economic Summit Conference to be held in Amman from October 30 to November 1, 1995, and expressed the hope that this Summit will contribute to the promotion of regional and interregional economic cooperation in the Middle East and North Africa, according to the outcome of Casablanca Summit which was held in October 1994.
305. The Heads of State or Government welcomed the outcome of the Ministerial Meeting of the Non-Aligned Countries on Debt and Development: Sharing of Experiences, held in Jakarta in August 1994. They recognized that the negotiating power of the debt-distressed countries could be considerably strengthened if they were able to cooperate on the different aspects of the debt problem. Towards this end, they agreed to continue to convene meetings, such as the one held in Jakarta, in order to keep the debt situation under regular review and to exchange views and experiences, as well as to adopt common positions; to strengthen technical cooperation among developing countries on debt management and debt negotiating techniques and to enhance bilateral cooperative arrangements among developing countries on debt and development issues.
306. The Heads of State or Government emphasized the importance of South-South cooperation in the area of science and technology and welcomed with satisfaction the adoption of the enhanced programme of cooperation by the Centre for Science and Technology of the Non-Aligned Countries and noted that in pursuance thereof and towards its implementation, number of meetings, workshops, training programmes and collaborative projects have been undertaken and publications brought out in such priority areas as remote sensing in agriculture, anti-malarial, commercial tissue culture and biotechnology, rural telecommunications, technologies for small and medium enterprises and technologies to replace ozone-depleting substances. They stressed that the Centre for Science and Technology of the Non-Aligned Countries requires, however, a sufficient level of commitment and financial contribution in order for it to be able to adequately perform its role and functions. They, therefore, called upon the Non-Aligned Countries and other developing countries that have not yet done so to sign the Statue of the Centre and contribute towards their membership.
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307. The Heads of State or Government pointed out that the establishment of regional centres for science and technology and the creation of a network of specialized institutions of developing countries can give new impetus to South-South technological cooperation. In this context, they considered it advisable to convene a meeting of experts on science and technology to exchange experiences and identify recommendations to Members of the Movement. They stressed the importance of supporting existing agreements among developing countries regarding the exchange of information and experience in the field of biotechnology and urged other developing countries to join those initiatives.
308. The Head of State or Government noted with appreciation the establishment of the Commission on Science and Technology (COMSTEC) following the first meetings of experts from several developing countries in October 1994 in Islamabad. The Commission would contribute towards enhanced networking for South-South cooperation in the field of science and technology.
309. The Heads of State or Government welcomed the results of the Conference of Ministers of Food and Agriculture of the Non-Aligned Movement of Food Security held in Bali, Indonesia from October 7 to 11, 1994. They recalled that the Conference had examined the dimensions of food scarcity, analyzed the future indicators pertaining to the persistent shortage of food products, and defined the solutions for this problem which depend mainly on the mobilization of collective action towards the utilization of the untapped resources in Non-Aligned Countries that possess a high potential of food production. In this regard, they underlined the need to intensify the implementation of the Bali Declaration and the Programme of Action on Food Security of the Non-Aligned Movement and Other Developing Countries adopted at the Conference.
310. The Heads of State or Government underlined that information and communications constitute an essential means for the effective implementation of South-South projects and programmes. They committed themselves to facilitate the enlargement and consolidation of linkages among developing countries in these areas through the promotion of cooperation among their respective data exchange centres and in particular through the South Investment, Trade and Technology Data Exchange Centre (SITTDEC) in Kuala Lumpur in order to promote trade, investment and technology cooperation network.
311. The Heads of State or Government, therefore, reaffirmed their commitment to South-South cooperation in the field of information and communication based on the principle of collective self-reliance. They called for enabling the functions and role of the Non-Aligned News Agencies Pool (NANAP) and Broadcasting Organizations of Non-Aligned Countries (BONAC) and accelerating the process of setting up the New International Information Centres recommended by COMINACIV.
312. The Heads of State or Government underscored that Technical Cooperation among Developing Countries, is an important catalyst for the development process. In this context, they endorsed the results and recommendations of the Joint Meeting of Experts and Decision Makers on the Self-Propelling Growth (SPG) Strategy held in Jakarta, Indonesia, from 12 to 15 June 1995. They considered that it is essential to promote and strengthen TCDC programs to encourage systematic exchange of information and experience in developmental matters, and the financing and technical support of the donor countries and international organizations.
313. The Heads of State or Government endorsed the establishment of the Centre for South-South Technical Cooperation in Indonesia as one of the vital and effective means for promoting and accelerating development in the developing countries. They also acknowledged the Centre as complementary to the existing centres of the Non-Aligned Movement as well as being an integral part of the endeavours of the Movement to strengthen South-South cooperation. They reaffirmed that the host country of the Centre should retain the existing financial arrangements of TCDC as a model of operational funding of the Centre and urged the developing countries and developed countries, as well as the multilateral and international organizations to take advantage of the modality offered by the Centre.
314. The Heads of State or Government emphasized the importance of greater cooperation among the countries of the Movement in the fields of education and training, which are essential factors for economic and social development. They committed themselves to promote scholarship and student exchange programmes and increase the creation of centres of excellence in developing countries.
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315. The Heads of State or Government called for the convening of a Conference of the Ministers of Culture of Member States during 1996 with the view to fostering cooperation among them. They stressed the need to further strengthen cooperation of the Non-Aligned and other developing countries in the field of culture, and in this regard welcomed the offer for hosting of the Fifth Film Festival of Non-Aligned and other developing countries by the Government of the Democratic People's Republic of Korea in Pyongyang to be held in September 1996, in accordance with action programme in the fields of education and culture.
316. The Heads of State or Government expressed their satisfaction at the results of the Fifth Conference of Ministers of Labour on Non-Aligned Countries and other developing countries held in early 1995 in New Delhi, in particular the decision to undertake cooperation programmes among developing countries in various socio-economic fields that have labour and employment implications. They endorsed the resolution of the Ministers to mobilize and bring together the capacities of the developing countries in the areas of cooperation identified in the Delhi Declaration and the Draft Program of Action.
317. The Heads of State or Government welcomed with interest the initiative presented within the framework of the International Conference on Population and Development held in Cairo, called "Partners in Population and Development : A South-South Initiative", and the progress achieved in this field. They considered it essential for all countries to join this initiative, and that the Non-Aligned Countries and other developing countries maintain an effective coordination in the implementation process of the agreements reached at the Conference. They promised to promote the exchange of information and experience concerning methods, techniques and modalities of implementation of population policies and programmes.
318. The Heads of State or Government committed themselves to seek a greater and more effective mobilization of the entrepreneurial sectors of Non-Aligned Countries, in order to take advantage of their financial, administrative and technological capabilities in the promotion of trade, investment and other forms of South-South cooperation. To that end, they will provide facilities and the support and incentives necessary to promote direct cooperation among the entrepreneurial circles of the aforesaid countries, through the holding of seminars, business round-tables, and the promotion of joint enterprises and other industrial cooperation activities.
319. The Heads of State or Government recommended harmonizing, consolidating, and integrating wherever possible the Caracas Program of Action of the Group of 77 and the Action programme for Economic Cooperation of the Non-Aligned Movement, in order to take full advantage of complementary activities, achieve greater efficiency and avoid duplication of efforts. They considered that the Joint Coordinating Committee between the Non-Aligned Movement and the Group of 77 has a vital role to play in this regard.
320. The Heads of State or Government observed with satisfaction the progress made in the adoption of the Terms of Reference and the operationalization of the Joint Coordinating Committee (JCC), and emphasized the need to reinforce it as a means of strengthening coordination and cooperation between the Non-Aligned Movement and the Group of 77 in order to promote the interests and positions of the developing countries in the different international negotiations and fora. They also noted with appreciation the progress achieved by the JCC in pursuing the interests of developing countries as reflected in the joint submission by both the Chairman of the Coordinating Bureau of the Non-Aligned Movement and the Chairman of the Group of 77, in their capacity as Co-Chairman of JCC, of the Message of the Chairman of the Non-Aligned Movement to the Chairman of the Group of 7 Summit in Halifax, as well as their joint efforts in strengthening the United Nations system undertaken during the 49th session of the United Nations General Assembly. They underlined that the meeting of the Committee shall be open-ended, as appropriate, to allow for broader participation by all Members of the Movement as well as by the Group of 77. They deemed it necessary that similar coordination between the Non-Aligned Movement and the Group of 77 be established with regard to United National activities outside New York in the field of development and international cooperation, in order to reinforce the solidarity and cooperation among developing countries.
321. The Heads of State or Government recommended the holding of a Ministerial Meeting of Non-Aligned Countries and other developing countries on South-South Cooperation. They also invited the integration and cooperation organizations and groupings of developing countries to meet in the near future in order to exchange experiences, explore new schemes of cooperation and formulate proposals with a view to the Ministerial Meeting.
322. The Heads of State or Government recognized the importance of the role and activities of the South Centre and stressed their commitment to fully support the Centre to enable it to effectively perform its tasks and mandates. In this regard they welcomed the entry into force of the Agreement to establish the Centre and invited all Non-Aligned Countries and other developing countries who have not done so to accede to the Agreement. They also welcomed the positive outcome of the First Session of the South Centre Council of representatives to strengthen further its relationship and cooperation with the Non-Aligned Movement. They invited the Non-Aligned Countries and other developing countries to consider contributing to its capital fund of the South Centre with a view of making the Centre self-sustaining.
323. The Heads of State or Government invited the South Centre to continue to assist in developing and formulating the positions and views of the developing countries across various global economic, development, political and strategic issues for the various meetings and conferences, particularly those under the aegis of the United Nations.
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324. The Heads of State or Government welcomed the results of the 4th Conference of Ministers of Information and Communication of Non-Aligned Countries (COMINACIV) held in June, 1993, Pyongyang, and examined the current development in the situation of information and communication relations. In this regard, they agreed that inequalities and imbalances prevailing in this field are distorting the image of the developing countries and stressed the urgent need to establish the New World Information and Communication Order on the basis of the principles of independence, progress, democracy and mutual cooperation.
325. The Heads of State or Government recognized the important role of international organizations including UNESCO in the establishment of information and communication infrastructures in the Non-Aligned Countries and other developing countries. They stressed the need to cooperate with such international organizations and to coordinate effectively the positions of the developing countries with relevant international organizations.
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326. The Heads of State or Government addressed the critical economic situation in Africa. They noted the determined efforts of the African government and peoples to overcome the critical situation in Africa. They, however, expressed their deep concern at the persistent critical economic situation in Africa. The Heads of State or Government noted that despite numerous agreements and commitments on this issue, the results continue to be discouraging, which is an indication of the lack of sufficient will on the part of the international community to effectively deal with the economic constraints of the continent. They urged the international community, particularly the developed countries and the United Nations system, to adopt, strengthen and implement effective measures to support the efforts of the African countries in their economic reform processes. In this context, they reiterated their support for the appeal of the King of Morocco supported by other African heads of State or Government to launch a Marshall Plan for Africa aimed at the revitalization of economic growth and development in Africa.
327. The Heads of State or Government declared that the United Nations system should, in particular, provide effective means, including new and additional resources, aimed at the development of the social sector in African countries, in order to alleviate the adverse consequences of the implementation of structural adjustment programmes at heavy social costs. They welcomed the adoption of General Assembly resolution 49/42 and called for the timely implementation of the United Nations New Agenda for the Development of Africa in the 1990's, as well as the consolidation of efforts directed at the diversification of the African economies.
328. The Heads of State or Government expressed their concern, at the problems derived from man-made and natural disasters, including drought and desertification, which further aggravate the situation in Africa in spite of the efforts undertaken at the national, sub-regional and regional levels.
329. While emphasizing threat the economic and social development of the continent depends primarily on the efforts of the African countries themselves, they reaffirmed the importance of external assistance as an essential support supplement. In this respect, they endorsed the recommendations contained in the Cairo Declaration on the Economic and Social Development of Africa, adopted by the Council of Ministers of the Organization of African Unity in march 1995 and in other relevant international instruments related to development in Africa.
330. The Heads of State or Government also noted that despite debt rescheduling and forgiveness, African countries are still confronted with an increasing debt burden. Although the application of the Naples Terms represent an encouraging step towards a solution to the problem of bilateral debt within the Paris Club, the debt of low-income African countries still remains a serious impediment to their development prospects. The situation is further exacerbated by the negative flow of resources toward the multilateral financial institutions. The progressive increase in the share of multilateral debt in their total debt stock requires the establishment of adequate modalities to implement multilateral debt reduction. Consequently they urged the World Bank in cooperation with the IMF to establish mechanisms that would not only seek lasting and effective solutions to the problem of multilateral debt, but also provide additional concessional resources to the concerned countries.
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331. The Heads of State or Government regretted that the commitments, undertaken by the international community to address the persistent crisis of the least developed countries, have not been fulfilled, causing serious harm to their development efforts. IN recent years the least developed countries have been further marginalized and have also increased in number.
332. The Heads of State or Government expressed serious concern about the uncertainties surrounding the replenishment of IDA resources. They, therefore, appealed to the international community, particularly the major contributors, to show greater commitment to development assistance, by helping secure the already committed under the tenth replenishment of IDA and contributing more substantially to the eleventh replenishment of IDA and to adequately finance the Special Assistance Program for Africa.
333. The Heads of State or Government called for the effective, full and prompt implementation of the Programme of Action for the Least Developed Countries for the 1990's, in order to facilitate the reactivation and acceleration of economic growth and sustainable development of those countries. In this regard, they welcomed the outcome of the High-level Intergovernmental Meeting on the Mid-Term Global Review of the Programme of Action for the Least Developed Countries for the 1990's, and called upon all concerned to take urgent measures to implement the recommendations of the Mid-Term Review Meeting.
334. The Heads of State or Government called upon the developed countries to fulfil the commitment of allocating at least 0.15% of their GNP as official development assistance to the least developed countries and to endeavour to reach the target of 0.20% by the year 2,000. They called upon the developed countries, multilateral financial institutions and other creditors for intensifying their efforts for an effective, durable, and comprehensive solution of the debt crisis of the LDCs. In this regard, they called upon the developed countries to cancel all types of debt of the Least Developed Countries.
335. The Heads of State or Government called upon the international community to take concrete steps so that the exports of the Least Developed Countries are given wider and more preferential access to the markets of the developed countries, and for support to be provided in the area of trade services, as well as in facilitating direct foreign investment flows. They expressed further support to the compensation of the least developed countries for the possible negative effect resulting from the Final Act of the Uruguay Round of Multilateral Trade Negotiations and for building capacities for maximizing opportunities arising from these agreements and in this regard, they called upon the international community for operationalizing the complementary provisions of the Marrakesh Agreement in favour of the least developed countries.
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336. The Heads of State or Government called on the international community to give special attention and support to the special development problems and needs of the land-locked developing countries, particularly through technical cooperation with and financial assistance by developed countries, and multilateral financial institutions to enable these countries to effectively participate in a rapidly globalizing world economy. They also noted that transit developing countries faced serious economic problems and that their efforts at developing a viable transit infrastructure also needed financial and technical support from the international community.
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337. The Heads of State or Government emphasized the need for the speedy implementation of the Barbados Programme of Action for Sustainable Development of Small Island States. In this regard, they called on the United Nations Development Programme as the lead agency to intensify its efforts to organize the support of the United Nations system towards capacity building at the local, national and regional levels.
338. The Heads of State or Government also recognized that many island developing countries experience specific trade and financing-related constraints, which are compounded by the growing frequency of natural disasters, resulting in economic and social vulnerability. In this connection, they underscored the importance of international cooperation to support policies and measures of island developing countries to mitigate the adverse effects of these constraints on their economic and social development.